Redress and reparations

In the late 1960s, Japanese Americans began to revisit the history of the exclusion and incarceration period in order to seek justice for their suffering and ensure that no such wrong would ever be committed again. Years of effort by community activists, politicians, academics, and other supporters culminated on August 10, 1988, with the signing of the Civil Liberties Act by President Ronald Reagan. This Act rescinded Executive Order 9066, and mandated an official apology from the federal government, monetary reparations payments to individuals excluded and incarcerated, and the creation of a federal fund for research and education about the incarceration.

Redress and reparations (255)
Mobilizing and organizing the community (166)
Impact of redress movement (53)
Receiving redress checks and apology (51)
Legal cases/coram nobis cases (87)
Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians (CWRIC) (10)
Formation and work (48)
Hearings (36)
Seattle, Washington hearings (192)
Washington, D.C. hearings (17)
Lobbying and implementation of findings and recommendations (29)
H.R. 4110 (18)
S. 2116 (13)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Civil Liberties Act of 1988, Civil Liberties Public Education Fund, Emergency Detention Act, Title II of the Internal Security Act of 1950, Aiko Herzig-Yoshinaga, William Hohri, Bill Hosokawa, Japanese American Evacuation Claims Act, Yuri Kochiyama, Magic cables, Kazuo Masuda, Robert Matsui, Spark Matsunaga, Norman Mineta, National Coalition for Redress/Reparations, National Council for Japanese American Redress, James Omura, Redress movement, Termination of Executive Order 9066, Mary Tsukamoto, Edison Uno, Clifford Uyeda

255 items
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2064 (October 12, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-40)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2064 (October 12, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-40)
Selected article titles: "114 Co-Sponsor HR 5499, Internment Commission Bill" (p. 1), "Assemblyman Mori Bill Solves Problem Cited by Nikkei Farmer" (p. 1), "Down to Earth: Relief in Sight" (p. 2), and "Redress Phase 2: HR 5499 in the Hopper" (pp. 4, 6).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 88, No. 2049 (June 29, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-25)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 88, No. 2049 (June 29, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-25)
Selected article titles: "Wendy Seeks Public Support" (p. 1), "Dr. Edmund Jung Wins Bias Case" (p. 1), "13 Asians Cultures Featured at Heritage Week" (p. 3), and "Calif. Columnist Raps Hayakawa for Failing to Understand Redress" (p. 5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 88, No. 2031 (February 23, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-7)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 88, No. 2031 (February 23, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-7)
Selected article titles: "S.I. Would Back Efforts to Undo Curfew Rulings" (p. 1), "'College Nisei' Update Calling on Evacuees Not Questioned Before" (p. 2), "Calif. Legislature Condemns EO 9066" (p. 3), and "From the Frying Pan: Florida's Issei Colony" (p. 5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2053 (July 27, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-29)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2053 (July 27, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-29)
Selected article titles: "U.S. Responds to 'Save the Boat People' Campaign" (p. 1), "In the Last 100 Years: Estimate 905,000 Japanese Emigrated" (p. 1), "Guest Speaker: A 'No-No' Segregee" (pp. 4, 9), and "Nisei in Japan: Yankee Samurai Here and Now" (p. 10).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 88, No. 2033 (March 9, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-9)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 88, No. 2033 (March 9, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-9)
Selected article titles: "JACL Drafting Bill for Redress Commission" (pp. 1, 4), "Hayakawa Aides See Boss as 'Superficial'" (p. 1, 8), "Travel Agency Owner Ordered to Pay Restitution to Victims" (p. 2), and "From Happy Valley: Chill of 1942" (p. 5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2056 (August 17, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-32)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2056 (August 17, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-32)
Selected article titles: "Issei Naturalization Class Reactivating" (p. 1), "Job Bias Cases by Japanese Firms in U.S. Viewed" (p. 1), "Assemblyman Mori's Day of Remembrance Bill Signed" (p. 1), and "Question and Answer Fact Sheet: Didn't Pearl Harbor Justify Your Detention?" (pp. 5, 7).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 88, No. 2048 (June 22, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-24)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 88, No. 2048 (June 22, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-24)
Selected article titles: "1980 Census Plans Thorough Coverage" (pp. 1, 4), "Addabbo Law Amendment Near Passage" (p. 1), "Wendy's Conviction Upheld" (pp. 1-2), and "Down to Earth: 'Political Realities' for the Nisei" (p. 4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 94, No. 7 (February 19, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-7)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 94, No. 7 (February 19, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-7)
Selected article titles: "EO 9066 Proclaimed 40 Years Ago" (pp. 1-2), "Immigration Raids to Continue; Ten Aliens Voluntarily Go Home" (pp. 1, 8), "Redress Phase 3: Remembering 9066" (p. 2), and "School Discipline in Tokyo Falling" (p. 5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 95, No. 10 (September 3, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-35)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 95, No. 10 (September 3, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-35)
Selected article titles: "Revised WW2 History Becomes Japanese Foreign Policy Issue" (pp. 1, 8), "Lobbying Effort Sought to Keep 5th Preference in Immigrant Law" (pp. 1, 8), "After 40 Yrs., Fresno Bee Takes New Stand on WW2 Evacuation" (p. 2), and "From Happy Valley: In Praise of Issei Women" (p. 4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 94, No. 1 (January 1-8, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-1)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 94, No. 1 (January 1-8, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-1)
Selected article titles: "Legal Experts Discuss Redress for Japanese American Internees" (pp. 1-2), "Go for Broke: A Pictorial History of the Japanese American 100th Infantry and the 442nd Regimental Combat Team" (pp. 8-12), "Comparative Survey Shows Aged Japanese Worry Less, Prefer Work Until Age 70 to Leisure" (p. 12), and "Toronto Nikkei Backs New Human Rights ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 95, No. 12 (September 17, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-37)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 95, No. 12 (September 17, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-37)
Selected article titles: "JACL Urges Retention of 5th Preference in Immigrant Bill" (p. 1), "Names of Former State Workers Eligible for AB 2710 Released" (pp. 1-2), "Noguchi Begins His Defense" (p. 3), and "From the Frying Pan: Nisei Aging Project in Critical Need" (p. 5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 94, No. 11 (March 19, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-11)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 94, No. 11 (March 19, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-11)
Selected article titles: "Noguchi Back in Center of Controversy" (pp. 1-2), "JACL-PSWDC Asks County for 'Fair Handling' of Noguchi Issue" (pp. 1, 6-7), "Letterbox: Mike Masaoka's Post-Operative Comments on Redress" (p. 4), and "From the Frying Pan: 'Redress' Repeats Mistake of WW2, Says Masugi" (p. 5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 95, No. 25 (December 17, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-50)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 95, No. 25 (December 17, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-50)
Selected article titles: "Matsui Chides Hayakawa for Dec. 7 Anti-Redress Speech" (p. 1), "U.S.-Japan Trade: Showdown Nears" (pp. 1, 4), "A-Bomb Survivors to Seek Hibakusha Research Bill" (p. 2), and "From the Frying Pan: Niihau: Bizarre Episode of WWII" (p. 5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 103, No. 11 (September 12, 1986) (ddr-pc-58-36)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 103, No. 11 (September 12, 1986) (ddr-pc-58-36)
Selected article titles: "Deukmejian Announces Opposition to Prop. 63" (p. 1), "'Compensate Victims': Illinois Gov. Backs Redress" (p. 1), and "East Wind: A Lesson in Linguistics: Notes on 'Nikkei'" (p. 5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 105, No. 18 (November 27, 1987) (ddr-pc-59-43)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 105, No. 18 (November 27, 1987) (ddr-pc-59-43)
Selected article titles: "Intermountain JACL Supports Minidoka Project" (pp. 1, 8), "LEC Update: S.1009 and the White House" (pp. 1, 5, 8), "Redress Also Finds Support of French" (p. 5), and "An Accumulated Sadness of 45 Years Lies Buried" (pp. 6-7).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 105, No. 11 (October 9, 1987) (ddr-pc-59-36)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 105, No. 11 (October 9, 1987) (ddr-pc-59-36)
Selected article titles: "Nikkei Crowd Jams Smithsonian Exhibit" (pp. 1, 6), "JACL Says Redress Now, Bork Later" (pp. 1, 8), "Yasui Coram Nobis Update" (pp. 3, 8), and "'Asian Americans and the Death of the Constitution'" (pp. 5-6).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 104, No. 17 (May 1, 1987) (ddr-pc-59-17)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 104, No. 17 (May 1, 1987) (ddr-pc-59-17)
Selected article titles: "Redress Lawsuit Filed Too Late, U.S. Govt. Contends" (pp. 1-2), "Issue of Racial Motivation Debated in 2nd Chin Trial" (pp. 1, 8), "Asian Groups Urge Revisions in INS Rules" (p. 3) and "Asian Artists Say They Need Community Support to Break Barriers" (p. 9).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 104, No. 20 (May 22, 1987) (ddr-pc-59-20)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 104, No. 20 (May 22, 1987) (ddr-pc-59-20)
Selected article titles: "House Subcommittee Gives Its Approval to Redress Bill" (p. 1, 8), "Reagan Announces Heritage Week and Asian Nomination" (p. 1), "Authors Comb Country for Camp Artists" (p. 2), and "Department of Justice?" (pp. 4-5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 106, No. 14 (April 8, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-14)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 106, No. 14 (April 8, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-14)
Selected article titles: "Mineta Leads Fight to Override Reagan's Veto" (p. 1), "Winner Awarded in July: Contest Focuses on Japanese and JA Experiences in U.S." (p. 1), "'Injustice' Cries Out for Redress, Says Inouye" (p. 3), and "The Treatment of Aliens and Foreigners in Japan" (p. 5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 107, No. 5 (September 2, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-30)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 107, No. 5 (September 2, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-30)
Selected article titles: "JACL Participates in March for Civil Rights" (p. 1), "Nikkei Education Conference: Masaoka, Furutani Opine on Nikkei Options" (p. 2), "Future of Japanese Americans Discussed" (p. 2), and "Extract of HR 442 Conference Report: Redress Bill Signed by President Reagan" (pp. 6-7).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 106, No. 16 (April 22, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-16)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 106, No. 16 (April 22, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-16)
Selected article titles: "Dukakis, Gore and Jackson Reps Meet with APAs" (pp. 1-2), "Ready for Vote: Action Initiated on S.1009" (pp. 1, 4), and "Japan's Embarrassing So. African Trade" (pp. 2, 5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 106, No. 4 (January 29, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-4)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 106, No. 4 (January 29, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-4)
Selected article titles: "'Cautious Optimism' on Passage of Redress Bill Seen This Year" (p. 1), "Senator Pleased with Progress of Two Measures" (p. 2), "Pirating the Beatles in Japan" (pp. 2-3, 5), and "Articles About Asian Americans May Be Misleading" (p. 5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 106, No. 25 (June 24-July 1, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-25)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 106, No. 25 (June 24-July 1, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-25)
Selected article titles: "Eligibility Issue on Redress Bill Still Unresolved" (p. 1), "'Dear Colleague' Letter: Conservative Congressmen Urge Colleague Support for Redress" (p. 1), "Nisei Veterans Focus on 1993 Celebration" (pp. 1, 3), and "JACL Candidates for National President Speak Out" (p. 5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 106, No. 23 (June 10, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-23)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 106, No. 23 (June 10, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-23)
Selected article titles: "'Only Fair': Bush Says 'Yes' to Redress" (p. 1), "Nikkei Vietnam Vets Saluted in L.A." (pp. 1, 3), "National Board Motions" (p. 5), and "New JACL Budget Figures in Detail" (p. 6).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 107, No. 1 (July 8-15, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-26)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 107, No. 1 (July 8-15, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-26)
Selected article titles: "Resolution Admitting JACL 'WW2 Errors' Presented to NCWNP" (p. 1), "Top Aides Urge Approval: Reagan Intends to Sign Redress Bill, Says Mercury News Report" (p. 1), and "Part II: JACL Presidential Candidates Respond to Questionnaire" (p. 7).
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