Redress and reparations

In the late 1960s, Japanese Americans began to revisit the history of the exclusion and incarceration period in order to seek justice for their suffering and ensure that no such wrong would ever be committed again. Years of effort by community activists, politicians, academics, and other supporters culminated on August 10, 1988, with the signing of the Civil Liberties Act by President Ronald Reagan. This Act rescinded Executive Order 9066, and mandated an official apology from the federal government, monetary reparations payments to individuals excluded and incarcerated, and the creation of a federal fund for research and education about the incarceration.

Redress and reparations (349)
Mobilizing and organizing the community (171)
Impact of redress movement (53)
Receiving redress checks and apology (59)
Legal cases/coram nobis cases (89)
Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians (CWRIC) (12)
Formation and work (49)
Hearings (37)
Seattle, Washington hearings (192)
Washington, D.C. hearings (17)
Lobbying and implementation of findings and recommendations (32)
H.R. 4110 (18)
S. 2116 (13)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Civil Liberties Act of 1988, Civil Liberties Public Education Fund, Emergency Detention Act, Title II of the Internal Security Act of 1950, Aiko Herzig-Yoshinaga, William Hohri, Bill Hosokawa, Japanese American Evacuation Claims Act, Yuri Kochiyama, Magic cables, Kazuo Masuda, Robert Matsui, Spark Matsunaga, Norman Mineta, National Coalition for Redress/Reparations, National Council for Japanese American Redress, James Omura, Redress movement, Termination of Executive Order 9066, Mary Tsukamoto, Edison Uno, Clifford Uyeda

349 items
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 88, No. 2041 (May 4, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-17)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 88, No. 2041 (May 4, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-17)
Selected article titles: "Omission of Asians 'Glaring Oversight' on U.S. List Designating 'Minorities'" (pp. 1-2, 11), "First Friday Feature: Angel Island Immigration Station Dedicated" (p. 3), "Japan Today: May 4-10 Asian/Pacific American Heritage Week" (p. 6), and "West Coast Nisei Farmers in 1942, if Given a Free Choice, Wanted to Remain" (p. 10).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 88, No. 2032 (March 2, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-8)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 88, No. 2032 (March 2, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-8)
Selected article titles: "'A Day of Remembrance' Observed Coast to Coast" (pp. 1-2, 6-7, 12), "JACL to Draft Its Redress Bill This Weekend" (pp. 1, 11), "JARR Not Getting Filled...Noteworthy Nikkei Needed" (pp. 3, 8), and "Down to Earth: More to Remember" (p. 4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 88, No. 2037 (April 6, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-13)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 88, No. 2037 (April 6, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-13)
Selected article titles: "April 20 Final Date to Complain: JACL Protests 'Yellow Peril' as Trademark" (pp. 1-2), "The Matter of Hindsight" (pp. 3-4), "President's Corner: Iki Dolphins" (p. 4), and "Redress Phase Two: Political Reality" (p. 7).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 88, No. 2025 (January 5-12, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-1)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 88, No. 2025 (January 5-12, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-1)
Selected article titles: "JACL to File Redress Bill" (pp. 1, 9-10), "When Douglas MacArthur 'Reigned' in Japan" (p. 2), "What Was the U.S. Occupation of Japan Like?" (pp. 3, 15), and "Japan's Secret Intercontinental Missile: Konnyaku Bakudan" (pp. 5, 14).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2065 (October 19, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-41)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2065 (October 19, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-41)
Selected article titles: "More Co-Sponsors Back Internment Commission Bill" (p. 1), "PC Chronology: 1929-79 / Fifty Years" (p. 3), "Vol. 1, No. 1: What's What on the Pages in '29" (p. 3), and "Random Musings: The Nikkei Tradition" (p. 8).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2059 (September 7, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-35)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2059 (September 7, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-35)
Selected article titles: "45-Minute Film Documentary: On Terminal Island 'Eviction'" (p. 1), "National Convention: Two Chapters Bid for 1982" (pp. 1-2, 4), "Question and Answer Fact Sheet on Redress: Won't Campaign Cause a White Backlash?" (pp. 5, 7), and "From the Midwest: 'Affirmative Action'" (p. 6).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 88, No. 2043 (May 18, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-19)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 88, No. 2043 (May 18, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-19)
Selected article titles: "Hayakawa Replies to Open Letter-Adv." (p. 1), "Gov. Brown Snubs Asian Heritage Wk." (pp. 1-2), "Midwest District Council: Youth Workshop--Milwaukee: Nisei Evacuees Relate Camp Experiences" (p. 7), and "Japan and U.S. as Partners in a Common Future" (pp. 7, 12).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 88, No. 2026 (January 19, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-2)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 88, No. 2026 (January 19, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-2)
Selected article titles: "California Highway Patrol: CHP Drops 5 Ft.-6 Height Standard" (p. 1), "Midwest District Council: Redress Might Rekindle Nikkei Backlash" (p. 8), and "Countrymen Exploit 'New' Immigrants, Say U.S. Sociologists" (p. 12).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 88, No. 2039 (April 20, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-15)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 88, No. 2039 (April 20, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-15)
Selected article titles: "Anti-Asian Bias in PL 995-507 Uncovered" (p. 1), "Manjiro Nakahama: The Man Who 'Discovered' America'" (pp. 3, 11), "Remembering the 'Forgotten Men' of the Golden Spike Ceremony" (pp. 3, 6), and "JACL Faces $100,000 Shortfall as Member Increase Not Seen" (p. 6).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 88, No. 2047 (June 15, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-23)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 88, No. 2047 (June 15, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-23)
Selected article titles: "JACL Position Statement: Redress, Commission Approach" (pp. 1, 3), "Rep. Matsui Heads Task Force on Narcotic Abuse by Elderly" (p. 2), "Third Friday Theme: Heavy Dialogue Precedes Nat'l Board Vote on Redress" (p. 3), and "Redress Issue Reactivates JACL Chapter After 25 Years" (p. 7).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 88, No. 2034 (March 16, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-10)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 88, No. 2034 (March 16, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-10)
Selected article titles: "United Way Help Sought for Asians in L.A." (p. 1), "Japan America Societies Form Nat'l Assn." (pp. 1, 3), "Only West Coast Public Official to Condemn Evacuation Proposal" (p. 3), and "Rohwer Revisited, Locals Wonder Why" (p. 8).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 88, No. 2042 (May 11, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-18)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 88, No. 2042 (May 11, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-18)
Selected article titles: "JACL Hosts Congressional Reception on Heritage Week" (pp. 1, 11), "$9,000 Raised for Washington Post Ad Addressed to Sen. Hayakawa" (pp. 1, 11), "Hiroshima Medical Team Back in U.S. to Check on Hibakusha" (p. 3), and "Substance Determining Sex in Embryo Discovered by Ohno" (p. 3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 94, No. 12 (March 26, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-12)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 94, No. 12 (March 26, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-12)
Selected article titles: "Coroner Noguchi Controversy: Supervisors Postpone Move to Suspend" (pp. 1, 8), "Sansei Judges Face Challengers" (pp. 1, 3), "Redress Phase 4: Implementing [501(c)4]" (p. 2), and "From the Frying Pan: After Redress, Do We Need a No-Evacuation Law?" (p. 5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 94, No. 8 (February 26, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-8)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 94, No. 8 (February 26, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-8)
Selected article titles: "'Reagan's Raids': People or Numbers" (pp. 1, 8), "JACL Now Preparing for 3-Year Redress Campaign" (pp. 1, 10), "East Wind: Issei Principles" (p. 5), and "Moshi-Moshi: Samrai Without Mystique--Kabu" (p. 12).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 94, No. 13 (April 2, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-13)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 94, No. 13 (April 2, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-13)
Selected article titles: "Hiroshima A-Bomb Survivors in Senate Urge Nuclear Arm Limit" (p. 1), "Noguchi Vows to Fight 30-Day Suspension" (p. 1), "Reparations and the Law" (pp. 2, 8), and "1980 Asian/Pacific Population of U.S. by State" [table] (p. 4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 102, No. 14 (April 11, 1986) (ddr-pc-58-14)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 102, No. 14 (April 11, 1986) (ddr-pc-58-14)
Selected article titles: "State Bill Allows Payments to Ex-School Clerks" (p. 1), "East Wind: Appeal from an Issei Vet" (p. 4), "Don't Ignore U.S.-Japan" (p. 4), and "Let's Not Get Involved" (pp. 4-5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 102, No. 11 (March 21, 1986) (ddr-pc-58-11)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 102, No. 11 (March 21, 1986) (ddr-pc-58-11)
Selected article titles: "Sansei Give Behind-the-Scenes Account of U.S.-Japan Trade Talks" (pp. 1, 8), "From the Frying Pan: Return to Heart Mountain" (p. 5), and "442 Officer Promotes Redress" (p. 6).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 103, No. 2 (July 11, 1986) (ddr-pc-58-27)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 103, No. 2 (July 11, 1986) (ddr-pc-58-27)
Edition contains Candidates for National JACL Office Supplement, A-D, between pages 4 and 5. Selected article titles: "Chicago Convention Honorees Named" (pp. 1-2), "LEC Update: Getting the Word Out" (p. 4), and "The $200,000 Question" (p. 5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 103, No. 3 (July 18, 1986) (ddr-pc-58-28)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 103, No. 3 (July 18, 1986) (ddr-pc-58-28)
Selected article titles: "Coalition to Fight English Initiative" (pp. 1, 6), "LEC Update: Close Encounters of Congressional Kind" (pp. 4-5), and "Nisei Compensated by Seattle School District Contribute to Redress Campaign" (p. 6).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 103, No. 23 (December 5, 1986) (ddr-pc-58-48)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 103, No. 23 (December 5, 1986) (ddr-pc-58-48)
Selected article titles: "New Series a Unique Chance for JA Actors" (pp. 1-2), "Immigration Bill: Attorneys Try to Decode New Technicalities" (pp. 1-2), "By the Board: Budgetary Realities" (p. 4), and "Newspapers Comment on Redress Issue" (p. 10).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 104, No. 23 (June 12, 1987) (ddr-pc-59-23)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 104, No. 23 (June 12, 1987) (ddr-pc-59-23)
Selected article titles: "Teachers Get Lesson about WW2 Camps" (p. 1), "President de la Madrid Credits Japanese Nikkei with Strengthening Japan-Mexico Relationship" (pp. 1, 11), "Lies and Half-Truths" (p. 4), and "Turkish Group Opposes Bill to Fund Films" (p. 10).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 105, No. 9 (September 25, 1987) (ddr-pc-59-34)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 105, No. 9 (September 25, 1987) (ddr-pc-59-34)
Selected article titles: "House Passes Redress Bill: H.R. 442 Passage Draws Positive Reactions" (pp. 1-2), "Public Apology from U.S. Gov't, $20,000 Compensation Included" (pp. 1, 3), "Bill to Fund Film Passes Assembly" (p. 2), and "H.R. 442" [transcription of bill] (pp. 4-5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 106, No. 2 (January 15, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-2)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 106, No. 2 (January 15, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-2)
Selected article titles: "PSWDC Holds First Recognitions Luncheon Dec. 6" (p. 1), "Marutani Responds: Letter Dismisses Need for Redress" (p. 1), "Breaking Up Japan, Inc." (pp. 2-3, 8), and "Thoughts of a Nisei" (p. 5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 106, No. 7 (February 19, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-7)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 106, No. 7 (February 19, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-7)
Selected article titles: "LEC Board: Redress 'Looks Good'" (pp. 1, 8), "Budget Tops List of Concerns at Board Meeting" (pp. 1-2), "'Guest Workers' Aren't Welcome" (pp. 3, 6), and "Encouraging Signs for Redress" (pp. 5-6).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 107, No. 14 (November 4, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-39)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 107, No. 14 (November 4, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-39)
Selected article titles: "Redress Payments Unaffected: Supreme Court Crushes NCJAR Lawsuit" (pp. 1, 9), "Delegation Urges Reagan to Sign Census Bill" (pp. 1, 9), "Voting Dukakis Better for America" (pp. 6, 8), and "Voting Bush Is the Obvious Choice" (pp. 6-7).
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