Redress and reparations

In the late 1960s, Japanese Americans began to revisit the history of the exclusion and incarceration period in order to seek justice for their suffering and ensure that no such wrong would ever be committed again. Years of effort by community activists, politicians, academics, and other supporters culminated on August 10, 1988, with the signing of the Civil Liberties Act by President Ronald Reagan. This Act rescinded Executive Order 9066, and mandated an official apology from the federal government, monetary reparations payments to individuals excluded and incarcerated, and the creation of a federal fund for research and education about the incarceration.

Redress and reparations (607)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Civil Liberties Act of 1988, Civil Liberties Public Education Fund, Emergency Detention Act, Title II of the Internal Security Act of 1950, Aiko Herzig-Yoshinaga, William Hohri, Bill Hosokawa, Japanese American Evacuation Claims Act, Yuri Kochiyama, Magic cables, Kazuo Masuda, Robert Matsui, Spark Matsunaga, Norman Mineta, National Coalition for Redress/Reparations, National Council for Japanese American Redress, James Omura, Redress movement, Termination of Executive Order 9066, Mary Tsukamoto, Edison Uno, Clifford Uyeda

607 items
Taiko performance, redress celebration (ddr-densho-10-106)
img Taiko performance, redress celebration (ddr-densho-10-106)
Caption on reverse: "Redress celebration - Sept. 1988, NVC Hall, Taiko Group."
President Ronald Reagan speaking at the signing of the Civil Liberties Act of 1988 (ddr-densho-10-180)
av President Ronald Reagan speaking at the signing of the Civil Liberties Act of 1988 (ddr-densho-10-180)
Caption on reverse: "Rep. Ben Blaz (R) Guam, Rep. Daniel Akaka (D) Hawaii, Sen. Spark Matsunaga, Pres. Ronald Reagan, Sen. Daniel Inouye, Rep Patricia Saiki."
Norman Mineta speaking (ddr-densho-10-196)
img Norman Mineta speaking (ddr-densho-10-196)
Event: President Reagan signing the Civil Liberties Act of 1988.
Thank you card (with envelope) to Tsuyako
doc Thank you card (with envelope) to Tsuyako "Sox" Kitashima from George Kudo (May 29, 1991) (ddr-janm-4-1)
Thank you card to Tsuyako "Sox" Kitashima from George Kudo (May 29, 1991). White card with illustration in blue/yellow/red of a hanging scale holding a basket of blue, purple, and pink flowers. "Thank You" is written in the top right corner. Envelope is postmarked May 29, 1991 from Marysville, California.
Thank you card to Tsuyako
doc Thank you card to Tsuyako "Sox" Kitashima from Suary and Bill Kyozeo (ddr-janm-4-33)
Thank you card to Tsuyako "Sox" Kitashima from Suary and Bill Kyozeo. Beige card with illustration in yellow/pink/green of two cartoon girls; one in a yellow dressing hugging the other in a pink dress. "Thanks so much" is written on the top center. There is decorative borders on the top and bottom.
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 82, No. 21 (May 28, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-21)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 82, No. 21 (May 28, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-21)
Selected article titles: "To the Point: Government Bureaucracy" (p. 1), "From JACL National Headquarters Communications: Whale Issue Committee" (p. 1), "Issei Evacuee, Now in Reno, Recalls Building Manzanar's Barb-Wire Fence" (p. 1), and "Columbia Basin Plan: Part I" (p. 2).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 82, No. 24 (June 18, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-24)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 82, No. 24 (June 18, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-24)
Selected article titles: "JACL Convention Delegates: Welcome to Sacramento" (p. 1), "Successor to Ushio Being Recruited" (p. 1), "By the Board: Reparations Campaign" (pp. 2, 6), and "Interracial Marriage by Asians Outside Ethnic Group Noted at Census Hearings" (p. 4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 94, No. 9 (March 5, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-9)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 94, No. 9 (March 5, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-9)
Selected article titles: "Nisei Veteran Wins Honorable Army Discharge After 36 Years" (p. 1), "'Day of Remembrance' in 1982: WW2 Aid of Quakers Recalled" (p. 1), "Redress Phase 3: JACL's Redress Ambassador Min" (p. 2), and "Trust Fund for Redress Seen as Breech of Faith" (p. 6).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 104, No. 24 (June 19, 1987) (ddr-pc-59-24)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 104, No. 24 (June 19, 1987) (ddr-pc-59-24)
Selected article titles: "'Tokyo Time' Is About Love--Nikkei Style" (pp. 1-2), "Calif. Bill Urges President, Congress to Approve Redress" (p. 1), "Japanese American History to Be Celebrated During Omatsuri" (p. 3), and "Japanese Peruvians Still Ineligible for Payments" (p. 8)j.
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 104, No. 25 (June 26, 1987) (ddr-pc-59-25)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 104, No. 25 (June 26, 1987) (ddr-pc-59-25)
Selected article titles: "Redress Still a Goal of Nikkei in Canada" (pp. 1, 6), "House Judiciary Committee Passes Redress Legislation" (p. 1), "Ex-Internees Lend a Hand to Refugee Students" (p. 1), and "Manzanar Reunion Planned" (p. 2).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 104, No. 22 (June 5, 1987) (ddr-pc-59-22)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 104, No. 22 (June 5, 1987) (ddr-pc-59-22)
Selected article titles: "High Court Sends NCJAR Suit Back to Lower Court" (p. 1), "Anti-Redress Material Sent to Members of Congress, Media" (pp. 1-2), "Bill to Fund Internment Film Passes by Second Committee" (p. 3), and "Local Reaction to Vincent Chin Verdict" (pp. 5-6).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 107, No. 3 (August 5-12, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-28)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 107, No. 3 (August 5-12, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-28)
Selected article titles: "Senate Gives H.R. 442 Final Approval, House Next" (pp. 1-2), "Grand Parade to Close '88 Nisei Week" (pp. 1, 7), "No Disgrace in JACL's Admission of Its Wartime Error" (p. 2), and "Violence Against Asians on Important Issue: What Will Replace Redress as JACL's Top Priority?" (p. 5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 106, No. 5 (February 6, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-5)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 106, No. 5 (February 6, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-5)
Selected article titles: "Nikkei Group Honors Frank for Redress Efforts" (p. 1), "Bills Backed by Matsunaga Approved" (p. 2), "Jerome Camp Holding Reunion in California" (p. 3), and "John Aiso: 1909-1987: Army Intelligence Relied on Nisei" (p. 10).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 107, No. 20 (December 23-30, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-45)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 107, No. 20 (December 23-30, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-45)
Special holiday issue divided into sections A 1-12, B 1-12, C 1-16, D 1-12, E 1-24, D 13-24, C 17-32, B 13-24, and A 13-24. Selected article titles: "The President Signs the Redress Bill" (pp. B-1-B-2), "Decision to Cooperate" (pp. C-4-C-5), "Despite Wishes of Some: Comparatively Few Internees Came from Hawaii" (pp. E-2-E-3, E-19), and "John ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 107, No. 17 (November 25, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-42)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 107, No. 17 (November 25, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-42)
Selected article titles: "Coalition Calls for Ethnic Studies Course" (p. 1), "13,639 Names to Be Included: Memorial Honoring Nikkei WW2 Vets, MIS Proposed" (p. 1), "Immigration Control and Reform Act: Mineta, Matsui, Irked by Report" (p. 1), and "Over 175 Attend JACL-Sponsored Redress Workshop" (p. 2).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 45, No. 15 (October 11, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-41)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 45, No. 15 (October 11, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-41)
Select article titles: "U.S. Supreme Court Reconvenes, JACL Interested in Three Cases" (p. 1); "40,000 Filipinos in California prospering; race problems minimized" (p. 1); "Percentage of Nisei Marrying Into Other Racial Groups Increasing Over Past Decade in Hawaii" (p. 2); "Army installation named for Nisei hero" (p. 7); "Apathy Toward Sacrifices of Nisei GIs Hit" (p. ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 45, No. 14 (October 4, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-40)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 45, No. 14 (October 4, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-40)
Select article titles: "JACL stand on U.S.-Japan argued" (p. 1); "Negro, Japanese in U.S. compared" (p. 1); "JACL files 'amicus' brief supporting Issei in escheal case new in appeal court" (p. 3); "Traditional CL 'hands-off' policy voiced" (p. 5); "Lack of Japanese community media may be good sign, says new Mile-Hi editor" (p. 8).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 45, No. 17 (October 25, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-43)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 45, No. 17 (October 25, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-43)
Select article titles: "Cemetery Sued. Refuses to Bury Child of Negro" (p. 1); "Supreme Court smashes another Southern attempt to block school desegregation" (p. 1); "Problem of internment of Japanese reported nil" (p. 1); "First Nisei International Convention opens in Tokyo; Kishi welcomes 500 delegates, hopes Nisei can help link nations" (p. 1); "Minority bias in ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 44, No. 15 (April 12, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-15)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 44, No. 15 (April 12, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-15)
Select article titles: "CL renews Hawaii statehood plea: Far East aspect of U.S. foreign policy would be strengthened by admission" (p. 1); Canadian Nisei patato grower protest dumping of U.S. spud surplus in Canada" (p. 1); "100 Million in Japan by '64 May 'Blow off Roof'" (p. 2); "San Jose-Okayama become sister cities" (p. 2); "Jefferson ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 94, No. 17 (April 30, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-17)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 94, No. 17 (April 30, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-17)
Selected article titles: "Rose Ochi's Community and Legal Forte Highlights Her Bid for Congress" (pp. 1, 3), "Letterbox: Tough Questions on U.S.-Japan Affairs Face Nat'l JACL" (pp. 4, 7), "From the Frying Pan: Rohwer Camp Memorial, Et Al" (p. 5), and "Musubi: Redress (?) for 'What Might Have Been'" (p. 5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 102, No.  9 (March 7, 1986) (ddr-pc-58-9)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 102, No. 9 (March 7, 1986) (ddr-pc-58-9)
Selected article titles: "Solidarity Stressed at L.A. DOR" (pp. 1, 12), "H.R. 442 Hearings to Be Rescheduled" (p. 1), "East Wind: U.S.-Japan Relations (Part 2)" (p. 4), and "DOR Rekindles Interest in Redress" (p. 12).
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