Draft resistance

In 1944 the government reinstated the draft for Japanese Americans after suspending it in 1942 and began drafting men directly from the camps. This action angered many. At Heart Mountain concentration camp, Wyoming, resistance took the form of an organized movement calling itself the Fair Play Committee. Members demanded that their rights as citizens be restored before enlisting in the military. Eventually, sixty-three men from Heart Mountain refused induction and were sentenced to prison terms for draft evasion. In the other camps, disparate individuals made the decision to resist the draft. After being unfairly incarcerated for almost two years, they saw the draft as the final injustice. Ultimately, 267 men from all the concentration camps were convicted of evading the draft and most served time in prison. President Truman pardoned all of the resisters in 1947.

World War II (216)
Resistance and dissidence (80)
Draft resistance (346)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Draft resistance, Frank Emi, Gordon Hirabayashi, No-No Boy (book)

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346 items
Takashi Hoshizaki Interview Segment 25 (ddr-densho-1000-290-25)
vh Takashi Hoshizaki Interview Segment 25 (ddr-densho-1000-290-25)
Memories of draft resistance trial

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the Interior.

Takashi Hoshizaki Interview Segment 26 (ddr-densho-1000-290-26)
vh Takashi Hoshizaki Interview Segment 26 (ddr-densho-1000-290-26)
Imprisoned at the McNeil Island penitentiary for draft resistance

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the …

Takashi Hoshizaki Interview Segment 23 (ddr-densho-1000-290-23)
vh Takashi Hoshizaki Interview Segment 23 (ddr-densho-1000-290-23)
Attending meetings of the Fair Play Committee

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the Interior.

Paul Nagano Segment 8 (ddr-densho-1000-65-8)
vh Paul Nagano Segment 8 (ddr-densho-1000-65-8)
Christian faith and social justice: dealing with so-called "loyalty questionnaire," and military service
Hiroshi Kashiwagi Interview Segment 17 (ddr-densho-1000-165-17)
vh Hiroshi Kashiwagi Interview Segment 17 (ddr-densho-1000-165-17)
Witnessing tension and conflict between "yes-yeses" and "no-nos" in Tule Lake
Hiroshi Kashiwagi Interview Segment 16 (ddr-densho-1000-165-16)
vh Hiroshi Kashiwagi Interview Segment 16 (ddr-densho-1000-165-16)
Reaction to the so-called "loyalty questionnaire": making the decision to resist the draft
Ben Kuroki - Shige Kuroki Interview Segment 15 (ddr-densho-122-21-15)
vh Ben Kuroki - Shige Kuroki Interview Segment 15 (ddr-densho-122-21-15)
Comments to the media after the resisters' trial versus feelings many years later

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life …

Dave Kawamoto Interview Segment 5 (ddr-densho-122-9-5)
vh Dave Kawamoto Interview Segment 5 (ddr-densho-122-9-5)
Attending meetings of the Fair Play Committee

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing on issues …

Dave Kawamoto Interview Segment 8 (ddr-densho-122-9-8)
vh Dave Kawamoto Interview Segment 8 (ddr-densho-122-9-8)
Response to JACL's name-calling: "it made me feel kind of betrayed"

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead …

Dave Kawamoto Interview Segment 6 (ddr-densho-122-9-6)
vh Dave Kawamoto Interview Segment 6 (ddr-densho-122-9-6)
Discussion of what made the Heart Mountain resistance different from other camps

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, …

Dave Kawamoto Interview Segment 7 (ddr-densho-122-9-7)
vh Dave Kawamoto Interview Segment 7 (ddr-densho-122-9-7)
Being picked up by the FBI for draft resistance

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing …

Dave Kawamoto Interview Segment 3 (ddr-densho-122-9-3)
vh Dave Kawamoto Interview Segment 3 (ddr-densho-122-9-3)
Making the decision to resist the draft

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing on issues …

Dave Kawamoto Interview Segment 10 (ddr-densho-122-9-10)
vh Dave Kawamoto Interview Segment 10 (ddr-densho-122-9-10)
Remembering the famous photograph of the Heart Mountain resisters on trial

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead …

Grace Kubota Ybarra Interview Segment 4 (ddr-densho-122-14-4)
vh Grace Kubota Ybarra Interview Segment 4 (ddr-densho-122-14-4)
Father's legacy as a resister: "I've never felt prouder of being his daughter"

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life …

Grace Kubota Ybarra Interview Segment 7 (ddr-densho-122-14-7)
vh Grace Kubota Ybarra Interview Segment 7 (ddr-densho-122-14-7)
Description of father, letters sent from prison

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing on issues …

Grace Kubota Ybarra Interview Segment 2 (ddr-densho-122-14-2)
vh Grace Kubota Ybarra Interview Segment 2 (ddr-densho-122-14-2)
Description of father's letters sent from prison

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing on issues …

Frank Emi Interview II Segment 19 (ddr-densho-122-20-19)
vh Frank Emi Interview II Segment 19 (ddr-densho-122-20-19)
Passing time in prison, talking with Issei Guntaro Kubota

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing …

Frank Emi Interview II Segment 21 (ddr-densho-122-20-21)
vh Frank Emi Interview II Segment 21 (ddr-densho-122-20-21)
Life after World War II: losing touch with other Fair Play Committee leaders, working for the post office, teaching judo

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews …

Frank Emi Interview II Segment 9 (ddr-densho-122-20-9)
vh Frank Emi Interview II Segment 9 (ddr-densho-122-20-9)
Recalling an interrogation by the camp project director

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing on …

Frank Emi Interview II Segment 20 (ddr-densho-122-20-20)
vh Frank Emi Interview II Segment 20 (ddr-densho-122-20-20)
Learning that conviction had been reversed: "it was a very happy occasion"

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, …

Frank Emi Interview II Segment 10 (ddr-densho-122-20-10)
vh Frank Emi Interview II Segment 10 (ddr-densho-122-20-10)
Bolstered by public support from James Omura, editor of the Rocky Shimpo

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, …

Frank Emi Interview II Segment 7 (ddr-densho-122-20-7)
vh Frank Emi Interview II Segment 7 (ddr-densho-122-20-7)
Reaction to the government's institution of the military draft, holding a rally

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, …

Frank Emi Interview II Segment 6 (ddr-densho-122-20-6)
vh Frank Emi Interview II Segment 6 (ddr-densho-122-20-6)
Beginnings of the Fair Play Committee

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing on issues surrounding …

Frank Emi Interview II Segment 22 (ddr-densho-122-20-22)
vh Frank Emi Interview II Segment 22 (ddr-densho-122-20-22)
Reflections on decision to resist the draft: "the injustice of the whole thing was so great, unfair"

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection …

Frank Emi Interview II Segment 16 (ddr-densho-122-20-16)
vh Frank Emi Interview II Segment 16 (ddr-densho-122-20-16)
Standing trial for resisting the draft

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing on issues surrounding …

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