Naturalization

Unlike other immigrants to the United States, Japanese and other Asians were not permitted to become naturalized American citizens until 1952. Under existing laws, naturalization was limited to "free white persons and to aliens of African nativity and to persons of African descent." Despite many attempts by Japanese immigrants (Issei) to gain citizenship, they were usually rejected on the grounds that the Issei were neither white nor black. The 1922 Supreme Court case Ozawa v. U.S. cemented the status of the issei as "aliens ineligible to citizenship" once and for all. It wasn't until 1952 with the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act that Issei were finally allowed to become naturalized U.S. citizens.

Naturalization (127)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Immigration Act of 1952, Naturalization Act of 1790, Ozawa v. United States, Tokutaro Slocum, Francis Walter

127 items
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 13 (February 12, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-180)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 13 (February 12, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-180)
"Judd Bill Passed by House Unit Without Dissenting Vote" (p. 1), "Senate OK's Bill to Pay for Our Loss" (p. 1), "Tokuda's Eye Third N.W. Title as Basketball Tourney Nears; Fierce Fight for Crown Looms" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 46 (May 29, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-114)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 46 (May 29, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-114)
"Issei Urged to Fill Out First Papers" (p. 1), "2 Stowaways on Ship will be Deported" (p. 1), "Third Parley on U.S. Rights Ends in D.C." (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 56 (July 13, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-223)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 56 (July 13, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-223)
"B.C. Fishermen Disapprove of Biased Action" (p. 1), "Talks on ENI to be Heard" (p. 1), "Schmoe, Rev. Andrews to Leave this Week for Hiroshima City" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 31 (April 16, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-198)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 31 (April 16, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-198)
"Hopes Rise on Senate Approval of Judd's ENI Legislation" (p. 1), "Local ADC Fund Push of $5,000 Starts April 20" (p. 1),
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 24 (March 23, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-191)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 24 (March 23, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-191)
"Delay by Senate on ENI Bill Looms; New York Post Scribe Fears Road "Very Uncertain" (p. 1), "President Inks Contraband Bill" (p. 1), "Letter to CARE from Japan" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 18 (March 2, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-185)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 18 (March 2, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-185)
"House Passes Judd's ENI Measure" (p. 1), "A Few More Queries, Replies on Evacuation Claims Law" (p. 1), "B.C. Japanese Count Days as March 31, 1949, Nears; Federal Curbs End Then" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 54 (July 6, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-221)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 54 (July 6, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-221)
"Demo Chief Vows to Help JACL-ADC on ENI Legislation" (p. 1), "T-4 Sawada Services to be Held This Saturday at Presbyterian" (p. 1), "Action on ENI Bill Seen" (p. 2).
The Northwest Times Vol. 5 No. 6 (January 20, 1951) (ddr-densho-229-267)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 5 No. 6 (January 20, 1951) (ddr-densho-229-267)
"Yorty's Bill Would End Racial Bias" (p. 1), "Loss Caused by Leasehold Sale Allowed Under Claims Act : ADC" (p. 1), "Tentative 3-Day Program Announced for '51 N.W. Young Buddhist Conclave" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 21 (March 12, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-188)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 21 (March 12, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-188)
"Newspapers From Coast to Coast Back Judd Bill for Equality in Naturalization & Immigration" (p. 1), "Snake River JACL Doubles "48" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 26 (March 20, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-96)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 26 (March 20, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-96)
"JACL in D.C. Asks Amending of Havenner Bill to Let Aliens in War Service to Stay in U.S." (p. 1), "Equality Urged for U.S. Aliens" (p. 1), "Story of the 442nd" (p. 2),
The Northwest Times Vol. 5 No. 8 (January 27, 1951) (ddr-densho-229-269)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 5 No. 8 (January 27, 1951) (ddr-densho-229-269)
"Two Measures Go to House; Hit Race Bias" (p. 1), "Mitchell Introduces Measure Altering Naturalization Laws; Lauds War Record of Nisei, Issei" (p. 1), "Evacuee Claim OK'd Under Act" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 30 (April 3, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-99)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 30 (April 3, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-99)
"Canada Curbs on Japanese to Continue" (p. 1), "House Gets Few More Measures to Aid 3 Japanese Aliens" (p. 1), "Judd Urges Quick Amendment on Naturalization Bills" (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 26 (March 30, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-193)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 26 (March 30, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-193)
"Revelle Points Out Generals' High Opinion of Fighting 442nd Combat Team" (p. 1), "Seattle JACL Chapter Urges Issei to Apply for Naturalization Now" (p. 1), "Evacuation Claims Queries, Replies" (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 97 (November 24, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-158)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 97 (November 24, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-158)
"Masaoka Meets Judd on Bill to Aid Issei" (p. 1), "Burial Held at Arlington for 442 Hero" (p. 1), "Rosary Will be Said for Staff Sgt. Kinoshita on Friday; Services for Pvt. Sagami Next Tuesday in Tacoma" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 15 (February 19, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-182)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 15 (February 19, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-182)
"House Judiciary Body Urged To End All Racial Bars in Soldier Brides' Act Riders" (p. 1), "ENI Measure's Chief Objective to Enable Asiatics to Come to U.S., Rep. Walters Declares" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 74 (September 16, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-243)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 74 (September 16, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-243)
"House Action on Walter Resolution is Predicted by Author of Bill" (p. 1), "Overseas Agency Tells Latest Rulings on Shipping Gift Parcels to Japan" (p. 1), "Buddy System Helps Fifth Combat Team in Solving Danger of Identity Error" (p. 1).
Heiji and Chiyoko Kurakawa (ddr-csujad-8-34)
doc Heiji and Chiyoko Kurakawa (ddr-csujad-8-34)
Oral history interview with Heiji and Chiyoko Kurakawa. Information on the oral history project is found in: csuf_stp_0012A; Glossary in: csuf_stp_0014. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: FCPL Kurakawa, Heiji and Chiyoko
Ben Tsutomu Nakagawa (ddr-csujad-8-49)
doc Ben Tsutomu Nakagawa (ddr-csujad-8-49)
Oral history interview with Ben Tsutomu Nakagawa. Information on the oral history project is found in: csuf_stp_0012A; Glossary in: csuf_stp_0014. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: FCPL Nakagawa, Ben Tsutomu
Arajiro Watari (ddr-csujad-8-98)
doc Arajiro Watari (ddr-csujad-8-98)
Oral history interview with Arajiro Watari. Information on the oral history project is found in: csuf_stp_0012A; Glossary in: csuf_stp_0014. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: FCPL Watari, Arajiro
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 62 (August 3, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-229)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 62 (August 3, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-229)
"Local JACL to Aid Claimants" (p. 1), "Inequality in Naturalization Laws Pointed Out by Senator Magnuson" (p. 1), "Claims Office for Seattle Indefinite Yet" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 43 (May 19, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-111)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 43 (May 19, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-111)
"Two Congressmen Point Out Wrong of Racial Bias against Minorities; Cite Plight of Japanese Americans" (p. 1), "Senate OK's Citizenship for War Vets" (p. 1), "Endorsements of Evacuation Claims Bills Now Urged by JACL-ADC in D.C.; Hearings Scheduled to Start Friday" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 38 (May 11, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-205)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 38 (May 11, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-205)
"Chinese OK Rider to Judd Measure" (p. 1), "Baptists Will Note Fiftieth Year Here" (p. 1), "List Contributors toward Local ADC Fund Drive" (p. 1).
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