Naturalization

Unlike other immigrants to the United States, Japanese and other Asians were not permitted to become naturalized American citizens until 1952. Under existing laws, naturalization was limited to "free white persons and to aliens of African nativity and to persons of African descent." Despite many attempts by Japanese immigrants (Issei) to gain citizenship, they were usually rejected on the grounds that the Issei were neither white nor black. The 1922 Supreme Court case Ozawa v. U.S. cemented the status of the issei as "aliens ineligible to citizenship" once and for all. It wasn't until 1952 with the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act that Issei were finally allowed to become naturalized U.S. citizens.

Naturalization (127)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Immigration Act of 1952, Naturalization Act of 1790, Ozawa v. United States, Tokutaro Slocum, Francis Walter

127 items
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 37 (April 28, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-105)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 37 (April 28, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-105)
"Acheson, Wirin Challenge Validity of Wartime Rider to Calif. Measure Denying Japanese Fishing License" (p. 1), "B.C. Regime to Lift Job Ban but No Franchise Reported Yet" (p. 1), "Gen. Clark and McCloy Endorse Judd's Naturalization Measure" (p. 5), "State Department Opens Way for Boom in Asia" (p. 5).
The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 75 (September 20, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-244)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 75 (September 20, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-244)
"Senate Action on President's Veto of Walter Resolution Expected Soon; Walter and Judd Lead Bill Fight" (p. 1), "Kickoff Dinner and Rally on Tuesday Will Launch Community Chest Drive in Our Area; Sing Named Colonel" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 67 (August 19, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-236)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 67 (August 19, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-236)
"Technical Move Stalls Action on Walter Bill" (p. 1), "House Version of Soldier Brides Act is Sent to President for Signature" (p. 1), "Japan Extends Farming Land Disposal Date" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 27 (April 2, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-194)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 27 (April 2, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-194)
"Oregon's Top Court Rules Alien Land Laws Against Japanese Unconstitutional" (p. 1), "Tourist Trade Aids Economy of Japanese" (p. 1), "NCNC Unit Eyes ENI Passage" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 86 (November 21, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-73)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 86 (November 21, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-73)
"80th Congress to Consider Naturalization Measure. Celler Bill to Open U.S. Citizenship to Alien Japanese" (p. 1), "Masaoka Returns to Wash. D.C. After West Tour" (p. 1), "Wreath Placed at Arlington" (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 101 (December 20, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-259)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 101 (December 20, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-259)
"Sen. Russell Objects to Walter Bill" (p. 1), "Three Courses on Far East Offered by U.W." (p. 1), "Senate Receives Walter Measure" (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 25 (March 17, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-95)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 25 (March 17, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-95)
"Epinal War Heroes' Remains Removed" (p. 1), "Congress Gets Another Bill Aiding Issei" (p. 1), "Story of the 442nd" (p. 2), "Frisco Saints, Berkeley Nisseis to Tangle for "Oriental Title" (p. 3).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 48 (June 15, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-215)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 48 (June 15, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-215)
"Economy-Minded Solons Pass Over Funds Set Aside for Claims" (p. 1), "House OK's ENI Legislation; Senate Unit Will Study It" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 55 (July 9, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-222)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 55 (July 9, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-222)
"Hawaii Governor Promises to Do What He Can to Push ENI Bill" (p. 1), "Claims Office Due to Open" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 5 No. 7 (January 24, 1951) (ddr-densho-229-268)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 5 No. 7 (January 24, 1951) (ddr-densho-229-268)
"Nat'l JACL Tells Names of Chairmen" (p. 1), "McDonough Bill Similar to ENI" (p. 2).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2056 (August 17, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-32)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2056 (August 17, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-32)
Selected article titles: "Issei Naturalization Class Reactivating" (p. 1), "Job Bias Cases by Japanese Firms in U.S. Viewed" (p. 1), "Assemblyman Mori's Day of Remembrance Bill Signed" (p. 1), and "Question and Answer Fact Sheet: Didn't Pearl Harbor Justify Your Detention?" (pp. 5, 7).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 44, No. 4 (January 25, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-4)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 44, No. 4 (January 25, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-4)
Selected article titles: "Builders using gov't financing sued for race bias in selling tract homes" (p. 1); "Eisenhower urges statehood for Hawaii & Alaska" (p.1); "Japan refugee returns home after year stay in California, in Uncle Sam uniform" (p. 1); "Nisei opera soloist set for S.F. season" (p. 2); "Temporary farm worker program extended for Mexicans ...
Issei naturalization ceremony (ddr-densho-113-39)
img Issei naturalization ceremony (ddr-densho-113-39)
This picture, taken at the Broadway Performance Hall, shows the naturalization ceremony of many of Seattle's Issei.
Fred Shiosaki Interview Segment 45 (ddr-densho-1000-190-45)
vh Fred Shiosaki Interview Segment 45 (ddr-densho-1000-190-45)
Helping parents obtain U.S. citizenship

This interview was conducted as part of a project to capture stories of the Japanese American community of Spokane, Washington. Densho worked in collaboration with the Northwest Museum of Arts and Culture.

The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 22 (March 25, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-9)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 22 (March 25, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-9)
"Text of Masaoka's Speech : Clarifies Japanese-American Situation" (p. 1), "Seeks Linguists" (p. 1)
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 32 (April 20, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-199)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 32 (April 20, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-199)
"ADC Fund Push Opens with Kickoff Luncheon" (p. 1), "Evacuation Claims Queries, Replies" (p. 2), "ADC to Ask Amendment to HR 199" (p. 2).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 47 (July 8, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-35)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 47 (July 8, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-35)
"Fights Use of Japanese in Job Classification" (p. 1), "ADC Receives New Version of H.R. 3999" (p. 1), "NVC Supports Measure on Citizenship" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 24 (March 13, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-94)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 24 (March 13, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-94)
"Center Blaze Sufferers Get Loss Claims" (p. 1), "Nisei War Memorial Army Raises $1,623 Here" (p. 1), "Union Membership Sought for Issei" (p. 2), "Fights Seizure of Alien's Land for War Claims" (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 68 (August 23, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-237)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 68 (August 23, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-237)
"Walter Bill Runs into Confusion" (p. 1), "Travel Bureau Office in N.Y. Will Open Soon" (p. 1), "Sgt. I. Furukawa Killed in Action" (p. 1).
API