Naturalization

Unlike other immigrants to the United States, Japanese and other Asians were not permitted to become naturalized American citizens until 1952. Under existing laws, naturalization was limited to "free white persons and to aliens of African nativity and to persons of African descent." Despite many attempts by Japanese immigrants (Issei) to gain citizenship, they were usually rejected on the grounds that the Issei were neither white nor black. The 1922 Supreme Court case Ozawa v. U.S. cemented the status of the issei as "aliens ineligible to citizenship" once and for all. It wasn't until 1952 with the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act that Issei were finally allowed to become naturalized U.S. citizens.

Naturalization (122)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Immigration Act of 1952, Naturalization Act of 1790, Ozawa v. United States, Tokutaro Slocum, Francis Walter

122 items
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 44, No. 23 (June 7, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-23)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 44, No. 23 (June 7, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-23)
Select article titles: "26,000 Japanese War Brides in U.S. Group Told" (p. 1); "Senate Committee Amends Claims Supplemental Appropriation Bill" (p.1 ); "Non-profit groups listed for 1st time as claim awardees" (p. 1); "JACL participates in Memorial Day Rites at Arlington Cemetery; sagging Nisei interest in war dead scored by D.C. JACLers" (p ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 122, No. 7 (April 5-18, 1996) (ddr-pc-68-7)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 122, No. 7 (April 5-18, 1996) (ddr-pc-68-7)
Selected article titles: "What's Growing Fast, Creating Wealth and Voting? It's the AP Community, Study Says" (pp. 1, 12), "27th Trek to Manzanar Is Set for April 27 as Site Is Developed" (p. 5), "Naturalization Program Begun by APA Group" (p. 5), and "East Wind: The Asian Candidacy" (pp. 8, 12).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2050 (July 6, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-26)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2050 (July 6, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-26)
Selected article titles: "U.S. Leadership May Be Compromised: Eskimo Whaling vs. Moratorium Major IWC Issue" (pp. 1, 5), "East Wind: A Point of View: Redress" (p. 4), "From the Frying Pan: Tragedy of Vietnam's 'Boat People'" (p. 5), and "Pacific Sq. Marks Tanabata" (p. 8).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 98 (November 27, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-159)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 98 (November 27, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-159)
"Sabath Vows Support of Issei Rights" (p. 1), "Bias Noted in Chicago Cemeteries" (p. 1), "Claim Queries and Answers" (p. 1), "Community Basketball Season to Start Next Wed.,Dec. 1" (p. 3).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 47 (June 11, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-214)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 47 (June 11, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-214)
"House Unanimously Passes Resolution to Give "All' Right to U.S. Citizenship" (p. 1), "JACL ADC Seeks "Same Consideration' as Japanese for Okinawa People" (p. 1), "Solons Act on Two Appropriations Providing for Claims Processing" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 71 (September 6, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-240)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 71 (September 6, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-240)
"Korean Situation Hampers ADC Efforts to Win Boost in Claims Plan Budget" (p. 1), "Walter Bill OK by Truman Expected Soon" (p. 1), "ADC Releases Full Text of GI Bride Bill" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 51 (July 22, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-38)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 51 (July 22, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-38)
"Senate Passes Rider to Soldier Brides Act" (p. 1), "House to Debate One Hour on Evacuation Claims Bill" (p. 1), "Tables Deportation, Naturalization Measures" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 5 No. 2 (January 6, 1951) (ddr-densho-229-263)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 5 No. 2 (January 6, 1951) (ddr-densho-229-263)
"Ballots Sent to Members of JACL for Vote" (p. 1), "Naturalization Equality Bill to Get Priority in 82nd Congress, Says Masaoka in His '51 Plans" (p. 1), "Masaoka and Fujii's Attorneys Attack Cal's 37-Year-Old Alien Land Law" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 43 (May 28, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-210)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 43 (May 28, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-210)
"Canada's Japanese Unit Offices Will be Shut as of July 31" (p. 1), "Three Newspapers Support Passage of Judd's Measure for Equality with Editorials" (p. 1), ""House for Hiroshima' Group Will Depart United States for Japan Friday, Jun 24" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 73 (September 13, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-242)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 73 (September 13, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-242)
"President Truman Vetoes Walter Resolution, Calls It "Vague and Ill-Defined'; Urges Congress to Reconsider" (p. 1), "Kaiser & Frazier Will Manufacture Automobiles in Japan next January" (p. 1), "Convention Public Forum Will Probe JACL's "Blueprint for Tomorrow" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 36 (May 4, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-203)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 36 (May 4, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-203)
"Religious, Civic Leaders Back Judd's Legislation, JACL Midwest Worker Says" (p. 1), "Evacuation Claims Queries, Replies" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 5 No. 4 (January 13, 1951) (ddr-densho-229-265)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 5 No. 4 (January 13, 1951) (ddr-densho-229-265)
"Slight Changes in Alien Stay Rulings Cited" (p. 1), "West Coast Evacuees Can't be Paid for Certain Expenses, Justice Rules" (p. 1), "Bills to Aid Asian Kin of GI's Studied" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 102 (December 23, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-260)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 102 (December 23, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-260)
"Chinese Fear Mass Removal of Their Kind" (p. 1), "Ex-U Aide Says Evacuation Book Led to Ouster" (p. 1), "Pushes Walter Bill" (p. 2).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 49, No. 14 (October 2, 1959) (ddr-pc-31-40)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 49, No. 14 (October 2, 1959) (ddr-pc-31-40)
Selected article titles: "President signs amendment to immigration bill" (p. 1), "Elderly Issei in 80s and 90s sworn in as new citizens" (p. 1), "Few Japanese farm laborers able to save million yen from three-year U.S. stay" (p. 1), "Nisei discrimination topic of Yoshino speech" (p. 1), "Nisei administrative assistant to Burns steps into political ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 48, No. 14 (April 3, 1959) (ddr-pc-31-14)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 48, No. 14 (April 3, 1959) (ddr-pc-31-14)
Selected article titles: "Walter bill liberalizes Immigration Act" (p. 1), "Nisei newcomer in Arizona successful in nursery business" (p. 1), "Tule Lake center may be youth honor camp" (p. 1), "UCLA medical research reports success with measle vaccine, Nisei doctor aids" (p. 1), "Bent on suicide, Nisei speeds into busy intersection kills one, maims two" (p ...
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 100 (December 4, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-161)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 100 (December 4, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-161)
"OK of Measure for Equality Seen Likely" (p. 1), "Joint Rites Set for Six GI War Dead Saturday, Dec. 11 in Bukkyo-Kai; One of Nisei Heroes is Winner of DSC" (p. 1), "JACL Will Give Claims Forms" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 68 (September 19, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-55)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 68 (September 19, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-55)
"Asks for Unity on Bainbridge in Hall Issue" (p. 1), "Canada Ends Voluntary "Repatriation' of Japanese at Government Expense" (p. 1), "Backs Americanism Body's Action" (p. 1), "LARA Reports Relief Aid to Needy Japan" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 65 (August 13, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-232)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 65 (August 13, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-232)
"Next "Open Night' on Wed., Aug. 17; Take Advantage of It, Okada Urges" (p. 1), "Illinois Senator Cites Record of Nisei GI's in Urging Passage of Judd Bill" (p. 2).
Kay Kido Threw Her Trousseau Overboard to Become American (ddr-one-3-76)
doc Kay Kido Threw Her Trousseau Overboard to Become American (ddr-one-3-76)
November 5, 1953 issue of the Mt. Adams Sun, Volume XIX, Number 6. The newspaper contains an article on the front page titled "Kay Kido Threw Her Trousseau Overboard to Become American." The article is about the Kenjiro and Miyuki "Kay" Kida process for American citizenship and their experiences living in the United States.
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 45, No. 3 (July 26, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-29)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 45, No. 3 (July 26, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-29)
Select article titles: "Almost 20,000 Mainland Issei Naturalized Within Past Decade" (p. 1); "Senate Takes Up Civil Rights Bill, 71-18 Vote" (p. 1); "Washington JACL Office analyses House Subcommittee report on Japanese farm labor" (p. 1); "Lonely airman's Japanese wife recovers from suicide attempt; steps to regain custody of children stirs interest in Kansas ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 44, No. 7 (February 15, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-7)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 44, No. 7 (February 15, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-7)
Selected article titles: "Justice Dep't officals to visit West Coast to investigate claims" (p. 1); "Dr. Rusch decorated at Embassy for promoting Japanese American friendship" (p. 1); "Rev. Kano retires from active ministry among Japanese in Nebraska; helped Issei with Americanization instructions" (p. 2); "Brotherhood Week program in L.A. set" (p. 3); "JACL joins ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 44, No. 6 (February 8, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-6)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 44, No. 6 (February 8, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-6)
Selected article titles: "Nisei hopes for U.S.-Japan ties told to new envoy Masaoka confers with MacArthur II, newly U.S. ambassador to Japan" (p. 1); "See boost in Japan quota of immigrants" (p. 1); "Masaoka to speak at Philadelphia fete" (p. 1); "JACL urges early enactment of civil rights bill this session" (p. 1 ...
API