Naturalization

Unlike other immigrants to the United States, Japanese and other Asians were not permitted to become naturalized American citizens until 1952. Under existing laws, naturalization was limited to "free white persons and to aliens of African nativity and to persons of African descent." Despite many attempts by Japanese immigrants (Issei) to gain citizenship, they were usually rejected on the grounds that the Issei were neither white nor black. The 1922 Supreme Court case Ozawa v. U.S. cemented the status of the issei as "aliens ineligible to citizenship" once and for all. It wasn't until 1952 with the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act that Issei were finally allowed to become naturalized U.S. citizens.

Immigration and citizenship (302)
Naturalization (130)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Immigration Act of 1952, Naturalization Act of 1790, Ozawa v. United States, Tokutaro Slocum, Francis Walter

130 items
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 81 (November 4, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-68)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 81 (November 4, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-68)
"Nisei War Dead Start for Home" (p. 1), "Naturalization Class to Open For Overseas War Brides" (p. 1), "Civil Rights Committee Adopts JACL-ADC Recommendations" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 43 (May 28, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-210)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 43 (May 28, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-210)
"Canada's Japanese Unit Offices Will be Shut as of July 31" (p. 1), "Three Newspapers Support Passage of Judd's Measure for Equality with Editorials" (p. 1), ""House for Hiroshima' Group Will Depart United States for Japan Friday, Jun 24" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 73 (September 13, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-242)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 73 (September 13, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-242)
"President Truman Vetoes Walter Resolution, Calls It "Vague and Ill-Defined'; Urges Congress to Reconsider" (p. 1), "Kaiser & Frazier Will Manufacture Automobiles in Japan next January" (p. 1), "Convention Public Forum Will Probe JACL's "Blueprint for Tomorrow" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 38 (May 11, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-205)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 38 (May 11, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-205)
"Chinese OK Rider to Judd Measure" (p. 1), "Baptists Will Note Fiftieth Year Here" (p. 1), "List Contributors toward Local ADC Fund Drive" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 102 (December 23, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-260)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 102 (December 23, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-260)
"Chinese Fear Mass Removal of Their Kind" (p. 1), "Ex-U Aide Says Evacuation Book Led to Ouster" (p. 1), "Pushes Walter Bill" (p. 2).
The Northwest Times Vol. 5 No. 6 (January 20, 1951) (ddr-densho-229-267)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 5 No. 6 (January 20, 1951) (ddr-densho-229-267)
"Yorty's Bill Would End Racial Bias" (p. 1), "Loss Caused by Leasehold Sale Allowed Under Claims Act : ADC" (p. 1), "Tentative 3-Day Program Announced for '51 N.W. Young Buddhist Conclave" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 36 (April 24, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-104)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 36 (April 24, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-104)
"Matsuoka Elected Chairman of Jackson Council" (p. 1), "Ex-Envoy to Japan Believes Time Ripe to Drop Ban on Japanese in Immigration, Naturalization Bill" (p. 1), "Hearings Open on H.R. 5004; Four Testify" (p .1),
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 3 (January 8, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-170)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 3 (January 8, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-170)
"House Receives Three Identical Bills for Equality in Naturalization" (p. 1), "Masaoka Signs Up As Lobbyist" (p. 1), "Truman Reaffirms Civil Rights Stand in Annual State of Union Message" (p. 2).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 17 (February 26, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-184)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 17 (February 26, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-184)
"File-Even If You Lack Written Proof of Losses" (p. 1), "Judiciary Committee Favors Judd's Bill for Equality in Naturalization, Immigration" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 64 (August 10, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-231)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 64 (August 10, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-231)
"File Your Evacuation Losses Claims; JACL Open Night Tonight" (p. 1), "Job of Crushing Zaibatsu Ended; Board Dissolved" (p. 1), "Last Minute Senate Action Sought on Judd Bill or Walter Resolution" (p. 2).
The Northwest Times Vol. 5 No. 4 (January 13, 1951) (ddr-densho-229-265)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 5 No. 4 (January 13, 1951) (ddr-densho-229-265)
"Slight Changes in Alien Stay Rulings Cited" (p. 1), "West Coast Evacuees Can't be Paid for Certain Expenses, Justice Rules" (p. 1), "Bills to Aid Asian Kin of GI's Studied" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 59 (July 23, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-226)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 59 (July 23, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-226)
"This is Mike Masaoka's Testimony at Senate Hearings on ENI Bill" (p. 1), "B.C. Evacuation Will be Aired" (p. 1)
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 15 (February 19, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-182)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 15 (February 19, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-182)
"House Judiciary Body Urged To End All Racial Bars in Soldier Brides' Act Riders" (p. 1), "ENI Measure's Chief Objective to Enable Asiatics to Come to U.S., Rep. Walters Declares" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 37 (April 28, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-105)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 37 (April 28, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-105)
"Acheson, Wirin Challenge Validity of Wartime Rider to Calif. Measure Denying Japanese Fishing License" (p. 1), "B.C. Regime to Lift Job Ban but No Franchise Reported Yet" (p. 1), "Gen. Clark and McCloy Endorse Judd's Naturalization Measure" (p. 5), "State Department Opens Way for Boom in Asia" (p. 5).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 62 (August 3, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-229)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 62 (August 3, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-229)
"Local JACL to Aid Claimants" (p. 1), "Inequality in Naturalization Laws Pointed Out by Senator Magnuson" (p. 1), "Claims Office for Seattle Indefinite Yet" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 75 (September 20, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-244)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 75 (September 20, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-244)
"Senate Action on President's Veto of Walter Resolution Expected Soon; Walter and Judd Lead Bill Fight" (p. 1), "Kickoff Dinner and Rally on Tuesday Will Launch Community Chest Drive in Our Area; Sing Named Colonel" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 97 (November 24, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-158)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 97 (November 24, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-158)
"Masaoka Meets Judd on Bill to Aid Issei" (p. 1), "Burial Held at Arlington for 442 Hero" (p. 1), "Rosary Will be Said for Staff Sgt. Kinoshita on Friday; Services for Pvt. Sagami Next Tuesday in Tacoma" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 77 (September 27, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-246)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 77 (September 27, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-246)
"Soldier Brides Bill Passage Places ADC in Unwanted Role of Lonely Hearts Club" (p. 1), "Claims Payments Expected Soon" (p. 1), "McCarran Ignores Veto of Walter Bill, Assures Solon of New Legislation" (p. 2).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 26 (March 20, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-96)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 26 (March 20, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-96)
"JACL in D.C. Asks Amending of Havenner Bill to Let Aliens in War Service to Stay in U.S." (p. 1), "Equality Urged for U.S. Aliens" (p. 1), "Story of the 442nd" (p. 2),
The Northwest Times Vol. 5 No. 8 (January 27, 1951) (ddr-densho-229-269)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 5 No. 8 (January 27, 1951) (ddr-densho-229-269)
"Two Measures Go to House; Hit Race Bias" (p. 1), "Mitchell Introduces Measure Altering Naturalization Laws; Lauds War Record of Nisei, Issei" (p. 1), "Evacuee Claim OK'd Under Act" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 74 (September 16, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-243)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 74 (September 16, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-243)
"House Action on Walter Resolution is Predicted by Author of Bill" (p. 1), "Overseas Agency Tells Latest Rulings on Shipping Gift Parcels to Japan" (p. 1), "Buddy System Helps Fifth Combat Team in Solving Danger of Identity Error" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 64 (September 9, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-52)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 64 (September 9, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-52)
""Mac' Told to K.O. Japan's War-Making Industries; Allied Council Chairman Attacks Soviet Obstruction" (p. 1), "Nisei Demand End of Japan Nationality" (p. 1), "GI-Japanese Bride Reports Help Naturalization Push" (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 66 (August 16, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-235)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 66 (August 16, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-235)
"Walter Gets Bid to Join JACL Confab" (p. 1), "International Carnival" (p. 1), "President Inks More Measures" (p. 2).
The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 92 (November 18, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-254)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 92 (November 18, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-254)
"Hearings Set on Masaoka, Fujii Cases" (p. 1), "Soldier Brides Act Deadline Feb. 18, 1951" (p. 1) "U.S. Assures Aid to Needy Issei" (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 54 (July 6, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-221)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 54 (July 6, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-221)
"Demo Chief Vows to Help JACL-ADC on ENI Legislation" (p. 1), "T-4 Sawada Services to be Held This Saturday at Presbyterian" (p. 1), "Action on ENI Bill Seen" (p. 2).
API