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Naturalization

Unlike other immigrants to the United States, Japanese and other Asians were not permitted to become naturalized American citizens until 1952. Under existing laws, naturalization was limited to "free white persons and to aliens of African nativity and to persons of African descent." Despite many attempts by Japanese immigrants (Issei) to gain citizenship, they were usually rejected on the grounds that the Issei were neither white nor black. The 1922 Supreme Court case Ozawa v. U.S. cemented the status of the issei as "aliens ineligible to citizenship" once and for all. It wasn't until 1952 with the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act that Issei were finally allowed to become naturalized U.S. citizens.

Immigration and citizenship (279)
Naturalization (127)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Immigration Act of 1952, Naturalization Act of 1790, Ozawa v. United States, Tokutaro Slocum, Francis Walter

127 items
The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 99 (December 13, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-257)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 99 (December 13, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-257)
"House Approves Walter Measure" (p. 1), "JACL Calls Attention to Bias on FHA Homes for Veterans" (p. 1), "Fort Lincoln Cemetery Decides to Adopt Segregation Policy" (p. 2).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 98 (November 27, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-159)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 98 (November 27, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-159)
"Sabath Vows Support of Issei Rights" (p. 1), "Bias Noted in Chicago Cemeteries" (p. 1), "Claim Queries and Answers" (p. 1), "Community Basketball Season to Start Next Wed.,Dec. 1" (p. 3).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 5 (January 15, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-172)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 5 (January 15, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-172)
"Hawaii Pushes ENI Measure" (p. 1), "Additional Claims Queries, Replies" (p. 1), "They'll Consider Equality Bill" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 43 (May 19, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-111)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 43 (May 19, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-111)
"Two Congressmen Point Out Wrong of Racial Bias against Minorities; Cite Plight of Japanese Americans" (p. 1), "Senate OK's Citizenship for War Vets" (p. 1), "Endorsements of Evacuation Claims Bills Now Urged by JACL-ADC in D.C.; Hearings Scheduled to Start Friday" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 72 (September 9, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-241)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 72 (September 9, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-241)
"Truman Must Approve or Veto Walter Bill by Today; Ten-Day Period Ends" (p. 1), "C-B-I Hero's Wife Awaits Truman Okay" (p. 1), "Masaoka, Brilliant ADC Chief, Named to Distinguished Leadership Award" (p. 2).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 32 (April 20, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-199)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 32 (April 20, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-199)
"ADC Fund Push Opens with Kickoff Luncheon" (p. 1), "Evacuation Claims Queries, Replies" (p. 2), "ADC to Ask Amendment to HR 199" (p. 2).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 46 (July 1, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-34)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 46 (July 1, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-34)
"House Will Get Claims Board Measure Soon" (p. 1), "House to Study H.R. 3555" (p. 1)
The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 73 (September 13, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-242)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 73 (September 13, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-242)
"President Truman Vetoes Walter Resolution, Calls It "Vague and Ill-Defined'; Urges Congress to Reconsider" (p. 1), "Kaiser & Frazier Will Manufacture Automobiles in Japan next January" (p. 1), "Convention Public Forum Will Probe JACL's "Blueprint for Tomorrow" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 102 (December 23, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-260)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 102 (December 23, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-260)
"Chinese Fear Mass Removal of Their Kind" (p. 1), "Ex-U Aide Says Evacuation Book Led to Ouster" (p. 1), "Pushes Walter Bill" (p. 2).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 38 (May 11, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-205)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 38 (May 11, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-205)
"Chinese OK Rider to Judd Measure" (p. 1), "Baptists Will Note Fiftieth Year Here" (p. 1), "List Contributors toward Local ADC Fund Drive" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 5 No. 6 (January 20, 1951) (ddr-densho-229-267)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 5 No. 6 (January 20, 1951) (ddr-densho-229-267)
"Yorty's Bill Would End Racial Bias" (p. 1), "Loss Caused by Leasehold Sale Allowed Under Claims Act : ADC" (p. 1), "Tentative 3-Day Program Announced for '51 N.W. Young Buddhist Conclave" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 41 (June 13, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-29)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 41 (June 13, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-29)
"House Unit Hears Masaoka's Plea for National FEPC Legislation" (p. 1), "H.R. 3771 Asks U.S. Citizenship for Alien Parents of GI's, Vets" (p. 1), "Equal Rights for Nisei in Trade Sought" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 81 (November 4, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-68)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 81 (November 4, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-68)
"Nisei War Dead Start for Home" (p. 1), "Naturalization Class to Open For Overseas War Brides" (p. 1), "Civil Rights Committee Adopts JACL-ADC Recommendations" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 22 (March 25, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-9)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 22 (March 25, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-9)
"Text of Masaoka's Speech : Clarifies Japanese-American Situation" (p. 1), "Seeks Linguists" (p. 1)
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 43 (May 28, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-210)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 43 (May 28, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-210)
"Canada's Japanese Unit Offices Will be Shut as of July 31" (p. 1), "Three Newspapers Support Passage of Judd's Measure for Equality with Editorials" (p. 1), ""House for Hiroshima' Group Will Depart United States for Japan Friday, Jun 24" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 36 (April 24, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-104)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 36 (April 24, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-104)
"Matsuoka Elected Chairman of Jackson Council" (p. 1), "Ex-Envoy to Japan Believes Time Ripe to Drop Ban on Japanese in Immigration, Naturalization Bill" (p. 1), "Hearings Open on H.R. 5004; Four Testify" (p .1),
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 3 (January 8, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-170)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 3 (January 8, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-170)
"House Receives Three Identical Bills for Equality in Naturalization" (p. 1), "Masaoka Signs Up As Lobbyist" (p. 1), "Truman Reaffirms Civil Rights Stand in Annual State of Union Message" (p. 2).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 17 (February 26, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-184)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 17 (February 26, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-184)
"File-Even If You Lack Written Proof of Losses" (p. 1), "Judiciary Committee Favors Judd's Bill for Equality in Naturalization, Immigration" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 2 (January 5, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-169)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 2 (January 5, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-169)
"Truman Shows Interest in Rights Bill" (p. 1), "Pa. Solon Vows to Present Measure for Equality in Naturalization" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 15 (February 19, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-182)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 15 (February 19, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-182)
"House Judiciary Body Urged To End All Racial Bars in Soldier Brides' Act Riders" (p. 1), "ENI Measure's Chief Objective to Enable Asiatics to Come to U.S., Rep. Walters Declares" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 62 (August 3, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-229)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 62 (August 3, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-229)
"Local JACL to Aid Claimants" (p. 1), "Inequality in Naturalization Laws Pointed Out by Senator Magnuson" (p. 1), "Claims Office for Seattle Indefinite Yet" (p. 1).
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