Immigration and citizenship

Japanese immigrants began arriving in the United States at the end of the nineteenth century when workers were recruited to meet the growing need for low-wage laborers in the Territory of Hawaii and on the West Coast. Commodore Perry had opened Japan to American commerce and trade relations in 1853, but anti-Asian sentiment resulted in the Gentlemen's Agreement of 1907, which halted the immigration of workers from Japan. In 1910, the Japanese population was about 80,000 in Hawaii and 72,000 on the continental United States. Japanese women continued to enter the country until the 1924 Immigration Act cut off immigration from Japan to the United States. Most of the early Japanese immigrants, the Issei (first generation), came as contract agricultural laborers, although many others were students and merchants. While Japanese immigrants were prohibited by discriminatory laws from becoming naturalized citizens of the United States, their American-born children (nisei) held U.S. citizenship.

Immigration and citizenship (99)
Life in Japan and reasons for leaving (59)
The journey (23)
Arrival (55)
Gannen Mono
Naturalization (104)
Anti-immigration sentiment (83)
Law and legislation (19)
Discriminatory laws (131)
Legal cases (12)
Picture brides (9)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Immigration, Japanese associations

99 items
Citizenship essay (ddr-one-3-115)
doc Citizenship essay (ddr-one-3-115)
Photocopy of a handwritten essay on citizenship written by George Kida, c.1930-1933. Essay covers right, privileges and duties of citizens.
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 102, No. 22 (June 6, 1986) (ddr-pc-58-22)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 102, No. 22 (June 6, 1986) (ddr-pc-58-22)
Selected article titles: "Nisei Will Receive College Diploma--44 Years Later" (pp. 1, 8), "Governor Seeking Support for Redress" (p. 1), "Camp Memorial to Be Dedicated" (p. 2), and "Program to Provide Help for Mail-Order, Servicemen's Wives" (pp. 3, 5).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 30 (April 3, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-99)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 30 (April 3, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-99)
"Canada Curbs on Japanese to Continue" (p. 1), "House Gets Few More Measures to Aid 3 Japanese Aliens" (p. 1), "Judd Urges Quick Amendment on Naturalization Bills" (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 42 (June 17, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-30)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 42 (June 17, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-30)
"House Immigration Unit Favors H.R. 3566, JACL-ADC Reports" (p. 1) "54 Nisei Leave for Alaska Canned Salmon Work" (p. 1), "Vote for Claims Board Measure, Rep. Twyman Tells Colleagues" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 69 (September 23, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-56)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 69 (September 23, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-56)
"France and U.S. Will Honor Nisei GI War Dead in Special Ceremony in Bruyeres on October 30" (p. 1), "Visit to Japan Not O.K. Yet, JACL Learns" (p. 1),"Final Briefs Completed for Alien Land Law Case" (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 29 (April 9, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-196)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 29 (April 9, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-196)
"Issei, Nisei May Get Claims Forms for Lost or Damaged Articles" (p. 1), "Bill Gives Atty. - Gen More Power" (p. 1), "Shaft Honors War Dead of This Area" (p. 1).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2054 (August 3, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-30)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2054 (August 3, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-30)
Selected article titles: "Minidoka Site Dedication: Sen. Church, Hosokawa Paired" (p. 1), "Viet Refugees in Japan Unhappy, Few Want to Stay" (p. 1), "From the Frying Pan: Chapter Vote on Redress" (p. 5), and "Jesse Kuhaulua Faces Toughest Sumo Bout: Career or Citizenship" (p. 8).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2074 (December 21-28, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-50)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2074 (December 21-28, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-50)
Special holiday issue. Selected article titles: "School Teacher Recalls Minidoka" (p. 26), "In Defense of JACL's Founding Membership Principle: Citizenship" (pp. 47-48), "Nikkei Impressions of Nikkei America After a Long Absence" (pp. 49, 92), and "Growing up in Postwar Japan" (pp. 54, 94).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 95, No. 4 (July 23, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-29)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 95, No. 4 (July 23, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-29)
Selected article titles: "U.S. Appellate Court Rules INS Raids Violate Constitutional Rights" (pp. 1, 3), "Kokekokko: 'Japanese Camps'" (p. 6), "Inouye's 6 Steps to Reduce Tensions for War" (p. 8), and "Chief Justice Warren and the Japanese Detention Cases" (pp. 8, 12).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 78 (September 18, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-140)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 78 (September 18, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-140)
"Evangelical, Reformed Church Supports End of Racial Bias in Present Immigration Laws" (p. 1), "Laws Favoring Japanese OK'd" (p. 1),
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 77 (September 15, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-139)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 77 (September 15, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-139)
"Public Law 863 Helps Aliens to Change Residence Status" (p. 1), "Nisei Firm Wins Coal Contracts" (p. 1), "Cpl. Kokubu of Oregon to be Buried at Arlington Cemetery Thursday" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 55 (August 5, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-42)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 55 (August 5, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-42)
"Senate Approves Measure to Probe Immigration Situation in Nation" (p. 1), "Kawakita to be Tried for Treason in Los Angeles on October 21" (p. 1) "About The Sun's Invasion of B.C." (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 34 (May 6, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-20)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 34 (May 6, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-20)
"House Unit Hearing on H.R. 2933 Finished" (p. 1), "Lifts Curbs on Japanese East of B.C." (p. 1), "Geisha Girls Are Having a Rough Time Under Allied Rule, It Says Here" (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 63 (August 6, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-230)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 63 (August 6, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-230)
"Local JACL Offers Assistance in Processing of Loss Claims" (p. 1), "Visitors to Nippon May Extend Stay 60 Days Under New Ruling" (p. 1), "Discrimination Hit by Rev. Briggs in Senate Hearing" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 51 (June 25, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-218)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 51 (June 25, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-218)
"Japanese Alien Granted Stay" (p. 1), "JACL (Victim of Greatest Violation) Asks Okay of Civil Rights Legislation" (p. 1)
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 52 (July 25, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-39)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 52 (July 25, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-39)
"House Passes Evacuations Claims Legislation" (p. 1), "VFW Measure Urges Naturalization of Japanese "Gold Star' Parents" (p. 1)
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 20 (March 18, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-7)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 20 (March 18, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-7)
"Fort Denies GI's in Town Saturday Night" (p. 1), "Pay Differences Peril Continuance of Salmon Industry" (p. 1), "Most Japanese Unaffected by Deportation Rule" (p. 2)
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 3 (January 10, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-2)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 3 (January 10, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-2)
"U.S. Court Hears Status of 5,500 Nisei" (p. 1), "Seeks Passage of Claims Bill" (p. 1), "M.I.S. Grads Total 2,675 in Monterey" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 30 (April 22, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-16)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 30 (April 22, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-16)
"NVC to Show 442nd Film" (p. 1), "U.S. Navy Now Admits Nisei" (p. 1), "Three Judges Hear Case of Mrs. Bouiss" (p. 1), "Two Wholesale Evacuations: American and Canadian" (p. 2).
Notification of appointment date (ddr-densho-278-9)
doc Notification of appointment date (ddr-densho-278-9)
Appointment notice for Henry Watanabe to return to the United States from Japan.
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