Immigration and citizenship

Japanese immigrants began arriving in the United States at the end of the nineteenth century when workers were recruited to meet the growing need for low-wage laborers in the Territory of Hawaii and on the West Coast. Commodore Perry had opened Japan to American commerce and trade relations in 1853, but anti-Asian sentiment resulted in the Gentlemen's Agreement of 1907, which halted the immigration of workers from Japan. In 1910, the Japanese population was about 80,000 in Hawaii and 72,000 on the continental United States. Japanese women continued to enter the country until the 1924 Immigration Act cut off immigration from Japan to the United States. Most of the early Japanese immigrants, the Issei (first generation), came as contract agricultural laborers, although many others were students and merchants. While Japanese immigrants were prohibited by discriminatory laws from becoming naturalized citizens of the United States, their American-born children (nisei) held U.S. citizenship.

Immigration and citizenship (167)
Life in Japan and reasons for leaving (60)
The journey (23)
Arrival (58)
Gannen Mono
Naturalization (118)
Anti-immigration sentiment (88)
Law and legislation (43)
Discriminatory laws (144)
Legal cases (17)
Picture brides (11)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Immigration, Japanese associations

167 items
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 102, No. 22 (June 6, 1986) (ddr-pc-58-22)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 102, No. 22 (June 6, 1986) (ddr-pc-58-22)
Selected article titles: "Nisei Will Receive College Diploma--44 Years Later" (pp. 1, 8), "Governor Seeking Support for Redress" (p. 1), "Camp Memorial to Be Dedicated" (p. 2), and "Program to Provide Help for Mail-Order, Servicemen's Wives" (pp. 3, 5).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 42 (June 17, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-30)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 42 (June 17, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-30)
"House Immigration Unit Favors H.R. 3566, JACL-ADC Reports" (p. 1) "54 Nisei Leave for Alaska Canned Salmon Work" (p. 1), "Vote for Claims Board Measure, Rep. Twyman Tells Colleagues" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 69 (September 23, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-56)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 69 (September 23, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-56)
"France and U.S. Will Honor Nisei GI War Dead in Special Ceremony in Bruyeres on October 30" (p. 1), "Visit to Japan Not O.K. Yet, JACL Learns" (p. 1),"Final Briefs Completed for Alien Land Law Case" (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 29 (April 9, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-196)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 29 (April 9, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-196)
"Issei, Nisei May Get Claims Forms for Lost or Damaged Articles" (p. 1), "Bill Gives Atty. - Gen More Power" (p. 1), "Shaft Honors War Dead of This Area" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 30 (April 3, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-99)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 30 (April 3, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-99)
"Canada Curbs on Japanese to Continue" (p. 1), "House Gets Few More Measures to Aid 3 Japanese Aliens" (p. 1), "Judd Urges Quick Amendment on Naturalization Bills" (p. 4).
Certificate of Nationality (ddr-densho-308-9)
doc Certificate of Nationality (ddr-densho-308-9)
Chiyoko Kanazawa's certificate of nationality. Kanazawa's daughter, Mae (Kanazawa) Hara recalled that her mother immigrated to Seattle, Washington in 1912. She was a gifted sewer and flower arranger. Even near the end of her life when she came to live with Hara, she would spend the mornings arranging flowers cut from the garden.
Citizenship essay (ddr-one-3-115)
doc Citizenship essay (ddr-one-3-115)
Photocopy of a handwritten essay on citizenship written by George Kida, c.1930-1933. Essay covers right, privileges and duties of citizens.
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 78, No. 17 (May 3, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-17)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 78, No. 17 (May 3, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-17)
Selected article titles: "'Operation Zebra' Reminds JACL of 1942 Evacuation of Japanese" (p. 1), "Tighter U.S. Policy Seen Reducing Number of Foreign Students This Year" (p. 1), "Washington Newsletter: What Can I Do About P.R.?" (p. 2), and "30-Year Debate of 'Direct Hit' Off Oregon Coast by Japanese Sub Ends" (p. 3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 82, No. 17 (April 30, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-17)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 82, No. 17 (April 30, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-17)
Selected article titles: "Reparation Campaign Underway" (pp. 1, 3), "Illegal Alien Law Okd" (pp. 1, 3), "Committee for Iva Toguri" (p. 1), and "Wendy's Pretrial" (p. 2).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 80, No. 4 (January 31, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-4)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 80, No. 4 (January 31, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-4)
Selected article titles: "'Toshiba Story' Irks Union Call for Boycott" (pp. 1, 4), "Supreme Court Hears Arguments on Aliens Being Employed in U.S. Gov't" (p. 1), "Dobashi-Ushio Duologue" (pp. 1-2), and "Ore-Idaho Nikkei Pioneers Feted" (p. 3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 80, No. 20 (May 23, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-20)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 80, No. 20 (May 23, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-20)
Selected article titles: "Fred I. Nakagawa Case: American Schools in Japan Still Cool Toward Affirmative Action" (pp. 1-2), "Anti-Viet Refugee Stand Berated" (pp. 1, 3), and "Book Review: 'Americans from Japan' Reissued" (p. 4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 58, No. 19 (November 8, 1963) (ddr-pc-35-45)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 58, No. 19 (November 8, 1963) (ddr-pc-35-45)
Selected article titles: "JACL Pledges Effort to Push for Stronger Civil Rights Bill" (p. 1), "Washington Newsletter: Compromise Civil Rights Bill" (p. 2), "Congressional Hearings for Braceros Urged" (p. 3), and "Seattle Mayor Urges Negroes to Call Off Vote Boycott Plans" (p. 3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 56, No. 4 (January 25, 1963) (ddr-pc-35-4)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 56, No. 4 (January 25, 1963) (ddr-pc-35-4)
Selected article titles: "Washington Newsletter: Lest We Forget: 442nd RCT Formed 20 Years Ago" (pp. 1-2), "Berkeley City Council Passes Tough Ordinance Prohibiting Bias in Housing, Each Day of Bias Considered as Separate Offense" (p. 1), "Spark M. Matsunaga" (p. 2), and "Congressman Matsunaga Urges Nisei to Take on Full-Fledged Citizenship" (p. 2).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 120, No. 12 (June 16-July 6, 1995) (ddr-pc-67-12)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 120, No. 12 (June 16-July 6, 1995) (ddr-pc-67-12)
Selected article titles: "Affirmative Action Programs Limited by Supreme Court" (pp. 1, 12), "JACL Opposes Cuts in Number of Legal Immigrants Allowed" (pp. 1, 5, 12), "Central California Highway to Honor 100/442nd, MIS" (p. 4), "Sgt. John Matsumoto Quiet Saga of WWII Nisei Aerial Gunner" (p. 5), and "Tracing the Jewish-Nisei Connection: Inouye, Vets Reunited ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 122, No. 9 (May 3-16, 1996) (ddr-pc-68-9)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 122, No. 9 (May 3-16, 1996) (ddr-pc-68-9)
Selected article titles: "JACL Leaders: Robert Sakaniwa Views Role as JACL D.C. Representative" (pp. 1, 14), "Civil Liberties Public Education Board to Dispense $5 Million Fund" (pp. 1, 12), "JACL National Convention News: Here's the Lineup for the 34th Biennual [sic] JACL Convention" (p. 6), and "From the Frying Pan: Novel Brings Awareness of ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 46, No. 17 (April 25, 1958) (ddr-pc-30-17)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 46, No. 17 (April 25, 1958) (ddr-pc-30-17)
Select article titles: "Sansei slain, innocent victim of teenage gang skirmish" (p.1); "ADC booster in Hawaii helps 1,200 Issei achieve U.S. citizenship" (p.8) Starting in No. 13, the volume number in the header changes from 46 to 26. This printing error is not corrected for the rest of the volume.
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 46, No. 22 (May 30, 1958) (ddr-pc-30-22)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 46, No. 22 (May 30, 1958) (ddr-pc-30-22)
Select article titles: "Sansei gunmen trail date set" (p. 1); "Nisei wins write-in election for California school post" (p.1); "Dr. Nishikawa to be keynote Confab speaker" (p. 1); "Nisei drowns trying to rescue youngster" (p. 3); "Over 6,000 immigrants from Japan admitted during 1957" (p. 8) Starting in No. 13, the volume number in ...
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