Immigration and citizenship

Japanese immigrants began arriving in the United States at the end of the nineteenth century when workers were recruited to meet the growing need for low-wage laborers in the Territory of Hawaii and on the West Coast. Commodore Perry had opened Japan to American commerce and trade relations in 1853, but anti-Asian sentiment resulted in the Gentlemen's Agreement of 1907, which halted the immigration of workers from Japan. In 1910, the Japanese population was about 80,000 in Hawaii and 72,000 on the continental United States. Japanese women continued to enter the country until the 1924 Immigration Act cut off immigration from Japan to the United States. Most of the early Japanese immigrants, the Issei (first generation), came as contract agricultural laborers, although many others were students and merchants. While Japanese immigrants were prohibited by discriminatory laws from becoming naturalized citizens of the United States, their American-born children (nisei) held U.S. citizenship.

Immigration and citizenship (135)
Life in Japan and reasons for leaving (60)
The journey (23)
Arrival (57)
Gannen Mono
Naturalization (112)
Anti-immigration sentiment (87)
Law and legislation (42)
Discriminatory laws (138)
Legal cases (17)
Picture brides (9)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Immigration, Japanese associations

135 items
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 88, No. 2041 (May 4, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-17)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 88, No. 2041 (May 4, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-17)
Selected article titles: "Omission of Asians 'Glaring Oversight' on U.S. List Designating 'Minorities'" (pp. 1-2, 11), "First Friday Feature: Angel Island Immigration Station Dedicated" (p. 3), "Japan Today: May 4-10 Asian/Pacific American Heritage Week" (p. 6), and "West Coast Nisei Farmers in 1942, if Given a Free Choice, Wanted to Remain" (p. 10).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 94, No. 8 (February 26, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-8)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 94, No. 8 (February 26, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-8)
Selected article titles: "'Reagan's Raids': People or Numbers" (pp. 1, 8), "JACL Now Preparing for 3-Year Redress Campaign" (pp. 1, 10), "East Wind: Issei Principles" (p. 5), and "Moshi-Moshi: Samrai Without Mystique--Kabu" (p. 12).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 94, No. 2 (January 15, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-2)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 94, No. 2 (January 15, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-2)
Selected article titles: "New Alien Law Eliminates Annual Address Reporting" (p. 1), "The Other Internees of World War II" (pp. 2-3), "Peter Imamura: Separate but Equal" (p. 3), and "Chapter Report: JACL in Japan Keeps Rolling" (p. 10).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 95, No. 13 (September 24, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-38)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 95, No. 13 (September 24, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-38)
Selected article titles: "House Judiciary Committee Votes to Retain 5th Preference" (p. 1), "Japanese Canadians to Seek Redress for WW2 Relocation" (pp. 1-2), "Former Nisei Queen Responds to Rift Over 'Mixed Ancestry'" (p. 3), and "Alaskan and Japan Cities Make 'Sister Port' Pact Official" (p. 8).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 94, No. 6 (February 12, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-6)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 94, No. 6 (February 12, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-6)
Selected article titles: "Immigration Raids Alarm Little Tokyo" (pp. 1, 12), "FDR 'Tapes' Tell More Than a Few Racial Slurs" (pp. 1, 7), "60th Anniversary Installation: Why the JACL Endures" (p. 7), and "The Major Supreme Court Error of WW2: Evacuation Cases" (p. 9).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 21 (March 3, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-92)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 21 (March 3, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-92)
"Japan-Born Youth Awarded U.S. Rights so He May Join Father, a Citizen in L.A." (p. 1), "Anti-Red Unit Favors Rights for Japanese" (p. 1), "Winnipeg Meet Will Consider JCCA Program" (p. 4), "JACL to Place Plaque on Ship Honoring Nisei" (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 13 (February 4, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-84)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 13 (February 4, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-84)
"H.R. Passes Bill to Liquidate Enemy Property. 250-Million Worth of Assets Once Belonging to Japanese, Germans Affected by Measure" (pg. 1), "Treason Trial Against Nisei in L.A. Delayed to May 11" (pg. 1)
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 90 (October 30, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-152)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 90 (October 30, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-152)
"Naturalization Rights for Parents of All War Vets Urged by Legion" (p. 1), "ADC Asks Data On Work Bias" (p. 1)
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 73 (October 7, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-60)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 73 (October 7, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-60)
"Canada Releases Claims Data" (p. 1), "Believes JACL Could Aid Nisei Left in Japan" (p. 1), "Jackson Street Area Chest Workers Selected; Allasina, Principal of Bailey Gatzert, Heads New Army" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 21 (March 21, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-8)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 21 (March 21, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-8)
"Unions Reject Alaska Industrial Offer" (p. 1), "B.C. Students Ask Citizenship for Japanese, Indians" (p. 1), "Yoshida Urges U.S. to Stay in Japan to Insure Peace" (p. 1)
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 32 (April 29, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-18)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 32 (April 29, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-18)
"House Committee Hears Masaoka's Plea" (p. 1), "Backs Quota for Asiatics" (p. 1) "Files Answer in Land Case" (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 1 (January 1, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-167)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 1 (January 1, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-167)
"Report from Washington: Work, Accomplishments of ADC in Legislative, Educational Horizons in U.S. Presented" (p. 1), "Claims Queries and Replies" (p. 6),
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 19 (March 14, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-6)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 19 (March 14, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-6)
"Alaska Cannery Contract Talks Start" (p. 1), "House Unit Halts Bills Preventing Alien Deportation" (p. 1), "Army Seeks More Nisei GI's to Aid Occupation of Japan" (p. 1), "Republican Majority Votes to Kill State FEPC Bill" (p. 2).
Gidra, Vol. I, No. 4 (July 1969) (ddr-densho-297-4)
doc Gidra, Vol. I, No. 4 (July 1969) (ddr-densho-297-4)
Selected article titles: "Experimental College Starts" (p. 1), "Yellow Brotherhood Food for Thought" (p. 1), "Blind Reflections?" (p. 2), "The Misunderstanding in Chinatown" (p. 4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 58, No. 17 (October 25, 1963) (ddr-pc-35-43)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 58, No. 17 (October 25, 1963) (ddr-pc-35-43)
Selected article titles: "Problems Facing Farmers Dependent upon 'Braceros' Detailed, Many Seem Resigned Program Will Continue for a Year More" (pp. 1-2), "Washington Newsletter: Civil Rights Battle" (p. 2), and "U.S. Gov't Will Pay for Property Claims Rising Out of Bombing on Pearl Harbor" (p. 3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 102, No. 22 (June 6, 1986) (ddr-pc-58-22)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 102, No. 22 (June 6, 1986) (ddr-pc-58-22)
Selected article titles: "Nisei Will Receive College Diploma--44 Years Later" (pp. 1, 8), "Governor Seeking Support for Redress" (p. 1), "Camp Memorial to Be Dedicated" (p. 2), and "Program to Provide Help for Mail-Order, Servicemen's Wives" (pp. 3, 5).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 42 (June 17, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-30)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 42 (June 17, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-30)
"House Immigration Unit Favors H.R. 3566, JACL-ADC Reports" (p. 1) "54 Nisei Leave for Alaska Canned Salmon Work" (p. 1), "Vote for Claims Board Measure, Rep. Twyman Tells Colleagues" (p. 1).
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