Naturalization

Unlike other immigrants to the United States, Japanese and other Asians were not permitted to become naturalized American citizens until 1952. Under existing laws, naturalization was limited to "free white persons and to aliens of African nativity and to persons of African descent." Despite many attempts by Japanese immigrants (Issei) to gain citizenship, they were usually rejected on the grounds that the Issei were neither white nor black. The 1922 Supreme Court case Ozawa v. U.S. cemented the status of the issei as "aliens ineligible to citizenship" once and for all. It wasn't until 1952 with the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act that Issei were finally allowed to become naturalized U.S. citizens.

Naturalization (122)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Immigration Act of 1952, Naturalization Act of 1790, Ozawa v. United States, Tokutaro Slocum, Francis Walter

122 items
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 18 (March 2, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-185)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 18 (March 2, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-185)
"House Passes Judd's ENI Measure" (p. 1), "A Few More Queries, Replies on Evacuation Claims Law" (p. 1), "B.C. Japanese Count Days as March 31, 1949, Nears; Federal Curbs End Then" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 54 (July 6, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-221)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 54 (July 6, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-221)
"Demo Chief Vows to Help JACL-ADC on ENI Legislation" (p. 1), "T-4 Sawada Services to be Held This Saturday at Presbyterian" (p. 1), "Action on ENI Bill Seen" (p. 2).
The Northwest Times Vol. 5 No. 6 (January 20, 1951) (ddr-densho-229-267)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 5 No. 6 (January 20, 1951) (ddr-densho-229-267)
"Yorty's Bill Would End Racial Bias" (p. 1), "Loss Caused by Leasehold Sale Allowed Under Claims Act : ADC" (p. 1), "Tentative 3-Day Program Announced for '51 N.W. Young Buddhist Conclave" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 21 (March 12, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-188)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 21 (March 12, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-188)
"Newspapers From Coast to Coast Back Judd Bill for Equality in Naturalization & Immigration" (p. 1), "Snake River JACL Doubles "48" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 26 (March 20, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-96)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 26 (March 20, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-96)
"JACL in D.C. Asks Amending of Havenner Bill to Let Aliens in War Service to Stay in U.S." (p. 1), "Equality Urged for U.S. Aliens" (p. 1), "Story of the 442nd" (p. 2),
The Northwest Times Vol. 5 No. 8 (January 27, 1951) (ddr-densho-229-269)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 5 No. 8 (January 27, 1951) (ddr-densho-229-269)
"Two Measures Go to House; Hit Race Bias" (p. 1), "Mitchell Introduces Measure Altering Naturalization Laws; Lauds War Record of Nisei, Issei" (p. 1), "Evacuee Claim OK'd Under Act" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 30 (April 3, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-99)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 30 (April 3, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-99)
"Canada Curbs on Japanese to Continue" (p. 1), "House Gets Few More Measures to Aid 3 Japanese Aliens" (p. 1), "Judd Urges Quick Amendment on Naturalization Bills" (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 26 (March 30, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-193)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 26 (March 30, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-193)
"Revelle Points Out Generals' High Opinion of Fighting 442nd Combat Team" (p. 1), "Seattle JACL Chapter Urges Issei to Apply for Naturalization Now" (p. 1), "Evacuation Claims Queries, Replies" (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 97 (November 24, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-158)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 97 (November 24, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-158)
"Masaoka Meets Judd on Bill to Aid Issei" (p. 1), "Burial Held at Arlington for 442 Hero" (p. 1), "Rosary Will be Said for Staff Sgt. Kinoshita on Friday; Services for Pvt. Sagami Next Tuesday in Tacoma" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 15 (February 19, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-182)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 15 (February 19, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-182)
"House Judiciary Body Urged To End All Racial Bars in Soldier Brides' Act Riders" (p. 1), "ENI Measure's Chief Objective to Enable Asiatics to Come to U.S., Rep. Walters Declares" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 74 (September 16, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-243)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 74 (September 16, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-243)
"House Action on Walter Resolution is Predicted by Author of Bill" (p. 1), "Overseas Agency Tells Latest Rulings on Shipping Gift Parcels to Japan" (p. 1), "Buddy System Helps Fifth Combat Team in Solving Danger of Identity Error" (p. 1).
Naturalization certificate (ddr-densho-23-16)
doc Naturalization certificate (ddr-densho-23-16)
Sawano Tazuma and her husband Bunshiro operated the Tazuma Ten-Cent Store at 12th Avenue and Jackson Street in Seattle's Nihonmachi. The Tazumas were not allowed to become naturalized American citizens until 1952, when the Immigration and Nationality Act was passed. Sawano finally became a citizen in 1954 at the age of fifty-eight, thirty-five years after ...
img "The graduation exercise of the Americanization School sponsored by Japanese Ancestral Society" (ddr-densho-259-394)
Front of photograph: "The graduation exercise of the Americanization School sponsored by Japanese Ancestral Society Portland, Oreg. May 28, 1953." Caption by Homer Yasui: "Group portrait of the Issei in the Portland area who graduated from the Americanization school, in preparation for taking their citizenship examinations."
The Newell Star, Vol. II, No. 43 (October 26, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-93)
doc The Newell Star, Vol. II, No. 43 (October 26, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-93)
Selected article titles: "Those Seeking Changes in Forms Must Write" (p. 1), "Minidoka Camp Closes 9 Days Ahead of Schedule" (p. 1), "General Stilwell's Action Commended by Secy. Ickes" (p. 2), and "3 Govt. Departments: Remove or Modify Rules for Employment of Nisei" (p. 4).
Application for naturalization (ddr-densho-126-3)
doc Application for naturalization (ddr-densho-126-3)
U.S. law forbade people of Japanese ancestry from becoming naturalized citizens until 1952. This document is an application for naturalization filed by an issei male in 1947.
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