Expatriation/repatriation/deportation

From 1943 to 1946, over 20,000 Japanese Americans applied to leave the United States for Japan in a process called "repatriation" (for Issei as non-citizens) or "expatriation" (for Nisei as citizens). Some Issei considered repatriation preferable to remaining in a country that had long discriminated against them. For Nisei, who had rarely been to Japan, expatriation meant renouncing their U.S. citizenship. Some were pressured to do so by family members or extremists; others were bitter about their mistreatment by the government. In total, only 4,724 ended up leaving for Japan directly from the camps and many eventually returned to the U.S. Nearly all Nisei who wanted to were able to regain their citizenship, although the process was long and difficult.

Expatriation/repatriation/deportation (153)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Joe Kurihara

153 items
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 64 (September 9, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-52)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 64 (September 9, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-52)
""Mac' Told to K.O. Japan's War-Making Industries; Allied Council Chairman Attacks Soviet Obstruction" (p. 1), "Nisei Demand End of Japan Nationality" (p. 1), "GI-Japanese Bride Reports Help Naturalization Push" (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 72 (October 3, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-59)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 72 (October 3, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-59)
"Local 7 Rejects Ousted Officials" (p. 1), Postscript to World War II: Nation's War Dead to Return Oct. 10" (p. 1), "Court Returns Greenhouses to Japanese" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 39 (June 6, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-27)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 39 (June 6, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-27)
"Many Alaska Salmon Industry Workers Sought" (p. 1), "Report Cites B.C. Removal of Japanese" (p. 1), "Okada and Satow Will Speak Here Monday Night in Buddhist Church; Report on Claims Board Bill" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 19 (March 14, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-6)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 19 (March 14, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-6)
"Alaska Cannery Contract Talks Start" (p. 1), "House Unit Halts Bills Preventing Alien Deportation" (p. 1), "Army Seeks More Nisei GI's to Aid Occupation of Japan" (p. 1), "Republican Majority Votes to Kill State FEPC Bill" (p. 2).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 73 (October 7, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-60)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 73 (October 7, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-60)
"Canada Releases Claims Data" (p. 1), "Believes JACL Could Aid Nisei Left in Japan" (p. 1), "Jackson Street Area Chest Workers Selected; Allasina, Principal of Bailey Gatzert, Heads New Army" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 74 (October 10, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-61)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 74 (October 10, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-61)
"Nisei War Dead on Second Shipment of State Servicemen Killed in Action" (p. 1), "New Local 7 Cannery Union Officers Will be Installed on Nov. 1" (p. 1), "JCCC Promises Legal Experts for Japanese" (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 1 (January 1, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-167)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 1 (January 1, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-167)
"Report from Washington: Work, Accomplishments of ADC in Legislative, Educational Horizons in U.S. Presented" (p. 1), "Claims Queries and Replies" (p. 6),
Okabe Family in Japan (ddr-manz-5-10)
img Okabe Family in Japan (ddr-manz-5-10)
Caption in album: "Mom / Life in Japan after repatriation."
Okabe Family in Japan (ddr-manz-5-8)
img Okabe Family in Japan (ddr-manz-5-8)
Caption in album: "Ge-Chan / Life in Japan after repatriation."
Gene Akutsu Segment 35 (ddr-densho-1000-1-35)
vh Gene Akutsu Segment 35 (ddr-densho-1000-1-35)
Deciding between being considered a "repatriate" or an "expatriate"
Tetsujiro
vh Tetsujiro "Tex" Nakamura Interview Segment 6 (ddr-densho-1000-263-6)
Making the decision to help renunciants regain their U.S. citizenship

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the ...

Tom Akashi Interview Segment 37 (ddr-densho-1000-164-37)
vh Tom Akashi Interview Segment 37 (ddr-densho-1000-164-37)
Witnessing the frenzy of people applying to renounce their U.S. citizenship
Sarah Sato Segment 28 (ddr-densho-1000-81-28)
vh Sarah Sato Segment 28 (ddr-densho-1000-81-28)
Treatment by Japanese citizens while living in Japan during the U.S. occupation
Marion Tsutakawa Kanemoto Interview Segment 31 (ddr-densho-1000-148-31)
vh Marion Tsutakawa Kanemoto Interview Segment 31 (ddr-densho-1000-148-31)
Stopping in Goa, India, to board the Japanese troop ship Teiya maru; memories of terrible food, Japanese language classes
Arthur Ogami Interview Segment 32 (ddr-densho-1000-154-32)
vh Arthur Ogami Interview Segment 32 (ddr-densho-1000-154-32)
Disembarking in Japan: staying behind at the port to help unload baggage
Japanese Americans boarding ship (ddr-csujad-7-10)
img Japanese Americans boarding ship (ddr-csujad-7-10)
Japanese Americans boarding ship to return to Japan, Seattle, Washington, November 24, 1945. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: HMLSC_JA_f10
Sleeping quarters of Indonesians aboard the
img Sleeping quarters of Indonesians aboard the "Marine Lynx" (ddr-csujad-27-1)
Caption found with the image reads, "Sleeping quarters of Indonesians aboard the "Marine Lynx" with deportees standing beside bunks assigned to them." This is a group of approximately 200 Indonesian seamen who are being deported from San Francisco, California to Batavia, Dutch East Indies. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project ...
Indonesians boarding a train in San Francisco for the immigration detention facility at Crystal City, Texas (ddr-csujad-27-7)
img Indonesians boarding a train in San Francisco for the immigration detention facility at Crystal City, Texas (ddr-csujad-27-7)
Caption found with the image reads, "Here are the Indonesians boarding the Southern Pacific train, San Francisco, bound for Crystal City, Texas." This image shows a line of men with suitcases waiting to get on the train. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ind_01_01_009
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