Expatriation/repatriation/deportation

From 1943 to 1946, over 20,000 Japanese Americans applied to leave the United States for Japan in a process called "repatriation" (for Issei as non-citizens) or "expatriation" (for Nisei as citizens). Some Issei considered repatriation preferable to remaining in a country that had long discriminated against them. For Nisei, who had rarely been to Japan, expatriation meant renouncing their U.S. citizenship. Some were pressured to do so by family members or extremists; others were bitter about their mistreatment by the government. In total, only 4,724 ended up leaving for Japan directly from the camps and many eventually returned to the U.S. Nearly all Nisei who wanted to were able to regain their citizenship, although the process was long and difficult.

Expatriation/repatriation/deportation (153)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Joe Kurihara

153 items
The Newell Star, Extra (November 17, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-100)
doc The Newell Star, Extra (November 17, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-100)
Special publication titled "Justice Department Repatriation: First Departure Next Friday."
The Newell Star, Vol. II, No. 6 (February 9, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-55)
doc The Newell Star, Vol. II, No. 6 (February 9, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-55)
Selected article titles: "Notice to Prospective Repatriates Received" (pp. 1-2), "Equal Treatment Assured Students" (p. 1), and "Canada Uncertain on Segregation" (p. 1).
The Newell Star, Vol. II, No. 44 (November 2, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-96)
doc The Newell Star, Vol. II, No. 44 (November 2, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-96)
Selected article titles: "Repatriate News Expected Soon" (p. 1), "New Asst. Project Director: Shelly to Expand Tule Relocation Services" (p. 1), and "Establish Housing Project for 500 Near Sacramento" (p. 2).
The Newell Star, Vol. I, No. 16 (June 15, 1944) (ddr-densho-284-23)
doc The Newell Star, Vol. I, No. 16 (June 15, 1944) (ddr-densho-284-23)
Selected article titles: "Graduation for 120 Seniors on Friday" (p. 1), "Repatriation Requests in Transit to Japan" (PP. 1-2), and "All Meetings, Entertainments Must Be Registered with Police" (p. 2).
Marion Tsutakawa Kanemoto Interview Segment 30 (ddr-densho-1000-148-30)
vh Marion Tsutakawa Kanemoto Interview Segment 30 (ddr-densho-1000-148-30)
Leaving for Japan on the SS Gripsholm, part of the U.S. government-sponsored "exchange"
Tom Akashi Interview Segment 45 (ddr-densho-1000-164-45)
vh Tom Akashi Interview Segment 45 (ddr-densho-1000-164-45)
Working for the Saga Prefecture military government, encouraged by boss to return to the United States
Masamizu Kitajima Interview Segment 28 (ddr-densho-1000-287-28)
vh Masamizu Kitajima Interview Segment 28 (ddr-densho-1000-287-28)
Father changes his mind about moving the family to Japan

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department ...

Indonesian seamen at an immigration detention center in downtown San Francisco (ddr-csujad-27-3)
img Indonesian seamen at an immigration detention center in downtown San Francisco (ddr-csujad-27-3)
Caption found with the image reads, "Just before sailing time, the Immigration Service and the ship's captain were served with an order from the U.S. District Court to the effect that petition for a writ of habeas corpus had been filed on behalf of the Indonesians, claiming they would receive 'certain imprisonment and probable ...
Report on Jerome to Tule Lake transfer George Kuratomi (ddr-csujad-2-46)
doc Report on Jerome to Tule Lake transfer George Kuratomi (ddr-csujad-2-46)
Detailed informational report about George Kuratomi, an incarceree transfer to Tule Lake Camp from Jerome Camp due to questions about his loyalty to the United States and his activities within the Buddhist repatriate group at Jerome Camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0046
[Significant factors in requests for repatriation and expatriation] (ddr-csujad-2-57)
doc [Significant factors in requests for repatriation and expatriation] (ddr-csujad-2-57)
Report on the influx of repatriation to Japan requests from Manzanar Incarceration Camp. Report describes camp life in Tule Lake compared to Manzanar, special concerns with Kibei and Issei individuals, the draft, and family dilemma related to repatriation. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0057
[Some reactions to selective service: Tule Lake] (ddr-csujad-2-58)
doc [Some reactions to selective service: Tule Lake] (ddr-csujad-2-58)
Report on selective service reactions at Tule Lake Camp. Report discusses Japanese identity compared to American identity, especially for the Nisei, repatriation requests, and draft evasion. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0058
Japanese repatriates leaving for Japan (ddr-densho-37-278)
img Japanese repatriates leaving for Japan (ddr-densho-37-278)
Original WRA caption: "Japanese repatriates embarking for Japan." Although the WRA caption specifically refers to repatriates, many Japanese Americans who left were citizens of the United States and therefore, expatriates.
The Newell Star, Vol. III, No. 7 (February 15, 1946) (ddr-densho-284-119)
doc The Newell Star, Vol. III, No. 7 (February 15, 1946) (ddr-densho-284-119)
Selected article titles: "Repatriates to Sail for Japan on Feb. 21" (p. 1), "Establish 5-Day Rule for Completing Plans" (p. 1), and "Hawaii-Bound Persons Must Be Inoculated" (p. 1).
The Newell Star, Vol. I, No. 36 (November 2, 1944) (ddr-densho-284-39)
doc The Newell Star, Vol. I, No. 36 (November 2, 1944) (ddr-densho-284-39)
Selected article titles: "Repatriates Now Being Resettled in Manchukuo" (p. 1), "WRA Takes Step to Close Leupp Center" (p. 1), and "3 Japanese Captives Shot by Denver Hospital Guard" (pp. 1-2).
The Newell Star, Vol. II, No. 52 (December 28, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-110)
doc The Newell Star, Vol. II, No. 52 (December 28, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-110)
Selected article titles: "Tule Parolees to Be Granted Hearings Soon" (p. 1), "Justice Dept.: Renunciants May Now Apply for Hearings" (pp. 1-2), "3550 Voluntary Repatriates En Route to Japan" (p. 1), and "Need for More Workers Announced by Placement" (p. 2).
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