Expatriation/repatriation/deportation

From 1943 to 1946, over 20,000 Japanese Americans applied to leave the United States for Japan in a process called "repatriation" (for Issei as non-citizens) or "expatriation" (for Nisei as citizens). Some Issei considered repatriation preferable to remaining in a country that had long discriminated against them. For Nisei, who had rarely been to Japan, expatriation meant renouncing their U.S. citizenship. Some were pressured to do so by family members or extremists; others were bitter about their mistreatment by the government. In total, only 4,724 ended up leaving for Japan directly from the camps and many eventually returned to the U.S. Nearly all Nisei who wanted to were able to regain their citizenship, although the process was long and difficult.

Expatriation/repatriation/deportation (133)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Joe Kurihara

133 items
Tom Akashi Interview Segment 34 (ddr-densho-1000-164-34)
vh Tom Akashi Interview Segment 34 (ddr-densho-1000-164-34)
Observing changes in the pro-Japan organizations during the institution of the renunciation program
Frank Sumida Interview Segment 33 (ddr-densho-1000-261-33)
vh Frank Sumida Interview Segment 33 (ddr-densho-1000-261-33)
First impressions of Japan

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the Interior.

Japanese repatriates leaving for Japan (ddr-densho-37-278)
img Japanese repatriates leaving for Japan (ddr-densho-37-278)
Original WRA caption: "Japanese repatriates embarking for Japan." Although the WRA caption specifically refers to repatriates, many Japanese Americans who left were citizens of the United States and therefore, expatriates.
The Newell Star, Vol. III, No. 7 (February 15, 1946) (ddr-densho-284-119)
doc The Newell Star, Vol. III, No. 7 (February 15, 1946) (ddr-densho-284-119)
Selected article titles: "Repatriates to Sail for Japan on Feb. 21" (p. 1), "Establish 5-Day Rule for Completing Plans" (p. 1), and "Hawaii-Bound Persons Must Be Inoculated" (p. 1).
The Newell Star, Vol. I, No. 36 (November 2, 1944) (ddr-densho-284-39)
doc The Newell Star, Vol. I, No. 36 (November 2, 1944) (ddr-densho-284-39)
Selected article titles: "Repatriates Now Being Resettled in Manchukuo" (p. 1), "WRA Takes Step to Close Leupp Center" (p. 1), and "3 Japanese Captives Shot by Denver Hospital Guard" (pp. 1-2).
The Newell Star, Vol. II, No. 52 (December 28, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-110)
doc The Newell Star, Vol. II, No. 52 (December 28, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-110)
Selected article titles: "Tule Parolees to Be Granted Hearings Soon" (p. 1), "Justice Dept.: Renunciants May Now Apply for Hearings" (pp. 1-2), "3550 Voluntary Repatriates En Route to Japan" (p. 1), and "Need for More Workers Announced by Placement" (p. 2).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 64 (September 9, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-52)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 64 (September 9, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-52)
""Mac' Told to K.O. Japan's War-Making Industries; Allied Council Chairman Attacks Soviet Obstruction" (p. 1), "Nisei Demand End of Japan Nationality" (p. 1), "GI-Japanese Bride Reports Help Naturalization Push" (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 72 (October 3, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-59)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 72 (October 3, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-59)
"Local 7 Rejects Ousted Officials" (p. 1), Postscript to World War II: Nation's War Dead to Return Oct. 10" (p. 1), "Court Returns Greenhouses to Japanese" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 39 (June 6, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-27)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 39 (June 6, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-27)
"Many Alaska Salmon Industry Workers Sought" (p. 1), "Report Cites B.C. Removal of Japanese" (p. 1), "Okada and Satow Will Speak Here Monday Night in Buddhist Church; Report on Claims Board Bill" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 19 (March 14, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-6)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 19 (March 14, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-6)
"Alaska Cannery Contract Talks Start" (p. 1), "House Unit Halts Bills Preventing Alien Deportation" (p. 1), "Army Seeks More Nisei GI's to Aid Occupation of Japan" (p. 1), "Republican Majority Votes to Kill State FEPC Bill" (p. 2).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 73 (October 7, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-60)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 73 (October 7, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-60)
"Canada Releases Claims Data" (p. 1), "Believes JACL Could Aid Nisei Left in Japan" (p. 1), "Jackson Street Area Chest Workers Selected; Allasina, Principal of Bailey Gatzert, Heads New Army" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 74 (October 10, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-61)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 74 (October 10, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-61)
"Nisei War Dead on Second Shipment of State Servicemen Killed in Action" (p. 1), "New Local 7 Cannery Union Officers Will be Installed on Nov. 1" (p. 1), "JCCC Promises Legal Experts for Japanese" (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 1 (January 1, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-167)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 1 (January 1, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-167)
"Report from Washington: Work, Accomplishments of ADC in Legislative, Educational Horizons in U.S. Presented" (p. 1), "Claims Queries and Replies" (p. 6),
Okabe Family in Japan (ddr-manz-5-10)
img Okabe Family in Japan (ddr-manz-5-10)
Caption in album: "Mom / Life in Japan after repatriation."
Okabe Family in Japan (ddr-manz-5-8)
img Okabe Family in Japan (ddr-manz-5-8)
Caption in album: "Ge-Chan / Life in Japan after repatriation."
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