Expatriation/repatriation/deportation

From 1943 to 1946, over 20,000 Japanese Americans applied to leave the United States for Japan in a process called "repatriation" (for Issei as non-citizens) or "expatriation" (for Nisei as citizens). Some Issei considered repatriation preferable to remaining in a country that had long discriminated against them. For Nisei, who had rarely been to Japan, expatriation meant renouncing their U.S. citizenship. Some were pressured to do so by family members or extremists; others were bitter about their mistreatment by the government. In total, only 4,724 ended up leaving for Japan directly from the camps and many eventually returned to the U.S. Nearly all Nisei who wanted to were able to regain their citizenship, although the process was long and difficult.

Expatriation/repatriation/deportation (154)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Joe Kurihara

154 items
Tom Akashi Interview Segment 34 (ddr-densho-1000-164-34)
vh Tom Akashi Interview Segment 34 (ddr-densho-1000-164-34)
Observing changes in the pro-Japan organizations during the institution of the renunciation program
Tom Akashi Interview Segment 39 (ddr-densho-1000-164-39)
vh Tom Akashi Interview Segment 39 (ddr-densho-1000-164-39)
Observing mother's peers turning against her after her husband's arrest and removal from Tule Lake
Indonesians boarding buses in San Francisco to be taken to a waiting train (ddr-csujad-27-9)
img Indonesians boarding buses in San Francisco to be taken to a waiting train (ddr-csujad-27-9)
Caption found with the image reads, "Another view of Indonesians boarding buses at Immigration Station, San Francisco, to be taken to a waiting train." The train was to take them to the immigration detention facility at Crystal City, Texas. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ind_01_01_007
Japanese repatriates leaving for Japan (ddr-densho-37-282)
img Japanese repatriates leaving for Japan (ddr-densho-37-282)
Original WRA caption: "Japanese repatriates embarking for Japan." Although the WRA caption specifically refers to repatriates, many Japanese Americans who left were citizens of the United States and therefore, expatriates.
Japanese repatriates leaving for Japan (ddr-densho-37-281)
img Japanese repatriates leaving for Japan (ddr-densho-37-281)
Original WRA caption: "Japanese repatriates embarking for Japan." Although the WRA caption specifically refers to repatriates, many Japanese Americans who left were citizens of the United States and therefore, expatriates.
The Newell Star, Vol. I, No. 10 (May 4, 1944) (ddr-densho-284-15)
doc The Newell Star, Vol. I, No. 10 (May 4, 1944) (ddr-densho-284-15)
Selected article titles: "Repatriates Should Notify WRA and Spanish Embassy" (p. 1), "Reopening of Leupp Not Confirmed Here; Best" (p. 2), and "Tule Hardball Season Opens; Nippons Dump Manzanar Nine, 12-6" (pp. 5-6).
The Newell Star, Vol. I, No. 1 (March 9, 1944) (ddr-densho-284-6)
doc The Newell Star, Vol. I, No. 1 (March 9, 1944) (ddr-densho-284-6)
Selected article titles: "Extravagant Use of Rice Must Be Curtailed - Hayward" (p. 1), "74 Come from Poston Center" (p. 1), and "Myer Refutes Manzanar Rumor on Expatriation" (p. 3).
The Newell Star, Vol. I, No. 6 (April 13, 1944) (ddr-densho-284-11)
doc The Newell Star, Vol. I, No. 6 (April 13, 1944) (ddr-densho-284-11)
Selected article titles: "Co-ordinators Tender Resignations: Return to Normal State Given Reason for Action" (p. 1, 3), "H. Black Quells Segregation and Repatriation Rumors" (p. 1, 4), "Reserve Corps Status Defined" (p. 1), and "Fiscal Section Reveals 5011 Colonists on WRA Payroll" (p. 2).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 6 (January 19, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-173)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 6 (January 19, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-173)
"Bias Noted in Jobs For Minorities" (p. 1), "Crematory Aide, After Reading Word from Gen. Clark, OK's Burial of Nisei" (p. 1), "Challenge Right of U.S. Ouster" (p. 1), "Additional Claim Queries, Replies" (p. 2).
The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 84 (October 21, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-250)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 84 (October 21, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-250)
"McCarran Subversive Bill Hits Hard at Anyone Linked with Red Units" (p. 1), "Nisei Yanks Mistaken for Foe, ADC Says" (p. 1), ""Pix' Taken by F. Schmoe to be Shown" (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 41 (May 12, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-109)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 41 (May 12, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-109)
"Paint the Town Clean" (p. 1), "JACL-ADC Hails U.S. Decision on Restrictive Covenants" (p. 1), "Ruling on Eisler Case to Affect U.S. Aliens Facing Deportation" (p. 1), "Final Word on "Citizens' Due July 29" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 40 (May 8, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-108)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 40 (May 8, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-108)
"Senate Unit Favors Bills with Riders" (p. 1), "26 Nisei GI Dead Due Home" (p. 1),
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 51 (July 22, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-38)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 51 (July 22, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-38)
"Senate Passes Rider to Soldier Brides Act" (p. 1), "House to Debate One Hour on Evacuation Claims Bill" (p. 1), "Tables Deportation, Naturalization Measures" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 55 (June 30, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-123)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 55 (June 30, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-123)
"8,000 Nisei Included in Bracket Eligible for Coming U.S. Draft, WRA's 1940 Figures Disclose" (pg. 1), "5,000 Nisei Stranded in Japan Reportedly Lost Citizenship" (pg. 1), "Noted Sociologist Blames Political Pressure in B.C. as Chief Reason for Anti-Japanese Laws in Canada" (pg. 2)
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 50 (July 18, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-37)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 50 (July 18, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-37)
"Invite 11 Nations to Begin Talks for Early Japanese Peace Pact" (p. 1), "Probe Shoyu Sold on Shelves of Local Stores" (p. 1), "Truman Signs Thurn Bill" (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 5 No. 4 (January 13, 1951) (ddr-densho-229-265)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 5 No. 4 (January 13, 1951) (ddr-densho-229-265)
"Slight Changes in Alien Stay Rulings Cited" (p. 1), "West Coast Evacuees Can't be Paid for Certain Expenses, Justice Rules" (p. 1), "Bills to Aid Asian Kin of GI's Studied" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 26 (April 8, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-12)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 26 (April 8, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-12)
"Attend The Northwest Times Casaba Tourney April 11, 12 & 13" (p. 1), "Asks Masaoka to Give Data on Japanese" (p. 1), "House Body Postpones Hearings" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 73 (September 1, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-135)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 73 (September 1, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-135)
"442nd Leader Will Attend Utah Confab" (pg. 1), "Hiroshima Seeks Pittsburgh Aid" (pg. 1), "Ex-Resident of City Wants to Come Home" (pg. 4)
Okabe Family in Japan (ddr-manz-5-7)
img Okabe Family in Japan (ddr-manz-5-7)
Caption in album: "Taka / Life in Japan after repatriation."
Yoji J. Matsushima Interview Segment 7 (ddr-one-7-54-7)
vh Yoji J. Matsushima Interview Segment 7 (ddr-one-7-54-7)
Parents' decision to repatriate to Japan; being left off the boat

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department ...

Tom Akashi Interview Segment 35 (ddr-densho-1000-164-35)
vh Tom Akashi Interview Segment 35 (ddr-densho-1000-164-35)
Father arrested by the FBI and removed from Tule Lake along with sixty-nine others
Tom Akashi Interview Segment 43 (ddr-densho-1000-164-43)
vh Tom Akashi Interview Segment 43 (ddr-densho-1000-164-43)
Initial experiences in Japan: freezing cold, living on army surplus rations
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