Expatriation/repatriation/deportation

From 1943 to 1946, over 20,000 Japanese Americans applied to leave the United States for Japan in a process called "repatriation" (for Issei as non-citizens) or "expatriation" (for Nisei as citizens). Some Issei considered repatriation preferable to remaining in a country that had long discriminated against them. For Nisei, who had rarely been to Japan, expatriation meant renouncing their U.S. citizenship. Some were pressured to do so by family members or extremists; others were bitter about their mistreatment by the government. In total, only 4,724 ended up leaving for Japan directly from the camps and many eventually returned to the U.S. Nearly all Nisei who wanted to were able to regain their citizenship, although the process was long and difficult.

Expatriation/repatriation/deportation (153)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Joe Kurihara

153 items
Approximately 200 Indonesians in San Francisco being placed aboard the
img Approximately 200 Indonesians in San Francisco being placed aboard the "Marine Lynx" for deportation to Batavia, Dutch East Indies (ddr-csujad-27-4)
Caption found with the image reads, "Approximately 200 Indonesians being placed aboard the "Marine Lynx" for deportation to Batavia, Dutch East Indies." The ship is anchored in the San Francisco Bay. This image shows men walking up a gangplank onto the boat. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ind_01_01_002
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 20 (March 18, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-7)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 20 (March 18, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-7)
"Fort Denies GI's in Town Saturday Night" (p. 1), "Pay Differences Peril Continuance of Salmon Industry" (p. 1), "Most Japanese Unaffected by Deportation Rule" (p. 2)
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 44 (May 22, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-112)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 44 (May 22, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-112)
"JACL-ADC Seeks VFW Endorsement of H.R. 5004, Measure Favoring Naturalization for U.S. Issei" (p. 1), "Three Named to Unit to Adjust Differences on H.R. 3566" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 51 (June 25, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-218)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 51 (June 25, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-218)
"Japanese Alien Granted Stay" (p. 1), "JACL (Victim of Greatest Violation) Asks Okay of Civil Rights Legislation" (p. 1)
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 60 (July 27, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-227)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 60 (July 27, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-227)
"Canada Japanese to Get Bonus" (p. 1), "Ex-Seattleite in Tokyo Reports on Japanese Repats from USSR" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 77 (September 15, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-139)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 77 (September 15, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-139)
"Public Law 863 Helps Aliens to Change Residence Status" (p. 1), "Nisei Firm Wins Coal Contracts" (p. 1), "Cpl. Kokubu of Oregon to be Buried at Arlington Cemetery Thursday" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 68 (September 19, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-55)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 68 (September 19, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-55)
"Asks for Unity on Bainbridge in Hall Issue" (p. 1), "Canada Ends Voluntary "Repatriation' of Japanese at Government Expense" (p. 1), "Backs Americanism Body's Action" (p. 1), "LARA Reports Relief Aid to Needy Japan" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 86 (October 28, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-251)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 86 (October 28, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-251)
"Portland to Dedicate Nisei War Memorial Monument at Rites Sunday" (p. 1), "Truman Points to Flaws in McCarran Bill" (p. 1), ""Clean' Naturalization Measure Sought" (p. 4).
Okabe Family in Japan (ddr-manz-5-11)
img Okabe Family in Japan (ddr-manz-5-11)
Caption in album: "Ge-Chan / Life in Japan after repatriation."
Japanese repatriates leaving for Japan (ddr-densho-37-280)
img Japanese repatriates leaving for Japan (ddr-densho-37-280)
Original WRA caption: "Japanese repatriates embarking for Japan." Although the WRA caption specifically refers to repatriates, many Japanese Americans who left were citizens of the United States and therefore, expatriates.
Japanese repatriates leaving for Japan (ddr-densho-37-277)
img Japanese repatriates leaving for Japan (ddr-densho-37-277)
Original WRA caption: "Japanese repatriates embarking for Japan." Although the WRA caption specifically refers to repatriates, many Japanese Americans who left were citizens of the United States and therefore, expatriates.
The Newell Star, Vol. II, No. 47 (November 23, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-101)
doc The Newell Star, Vol. II, No. 47 (November 23, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-101)
Selected article titles: "Sail from L.A. Dec. 2: 325 to Leave Center for Hawaii Next Friday" (p. 1), "First Group of 'Repats' Leaves Tule Lake Today" (p. 1), "Renunciant Case Draws Comment from S.F. Paper" (p. 2), and "Charles Miller: Gives Report on Northern Calif. Housing Facilities" (p. 3).
The Newell Star, Vol. II, No. 50 (December 14, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-108)
doc The Newell Star, Vol. II, No. 50 (December 14, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-108)
Selected article titles: "Tule Lake Figures: Over 5500 Relocate Since First of Year" (p. 1), "Nisei Merchant Marine Relates Trip to Japan" (p. 2), "Monday, Dec. 17: Deadline for Repatriates' Property Disposal Is Set" (p. 2), and "Former Residents Write of Conditions in East" (p. 3).
The Newell Star, Extra (October 26, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-94)
doc The Newell Star, Extra (October 26, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-94)
Special publication titled "From Department of Justice: Repatriation Announcement Made."
Hiroshi Kashiwagi Interview Segment 5 (ddr-densho-1002-4-5)
vh Hiroshi Kashiwagi Interview Segment 5 (ddr-densho-1002-4-5)
Discussion of decision in camp to renounce U.S. citizenship, family's near-deportation to Japan

This interview was conducted by sisters Emiko and Chizuko Omori for their 1999 documentary, Rabbit in the Moon, about the Japanese American resisters of conscience in the World War II incarceration camps. As a result, the interviews in this collection are ...

Frank Sumida Interview Segment 33 (ddr-densho-1000-261-33)
vh Frank Sumida Interview Segment 33 (ddr-densho-1000-261-33)
First impressions of Japan

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the Interior.

Tom Akashi Interview Segment 36 (ddr-densho-1000-164-36)
vh Tom Akashi Interview Segment 36 (ddr-densho-1000-164-36)
Personal feelings after father's arrest: angry, but "kind of proud"
Tom Akashi Interview Segment 38 (ddr-densho-1000-164-38)
vh Tom Akashi Interview Segment 38 (ddr-densho-1000-164-38)
Mother communicates via coded letters to try to discover father's whereabouts after his removal from Tule Lake
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