Gordon Hirabayashi

Gordon Hirabayashi, a 24-year-old senior at the University of Washington, arrived at the FBI office in Seattle on May 16, 1942, the date that he had been ordered to register for exclusion. He handed the FBI agent a four-page statement that explained why he refused to register. Hirabayashi was raised as a Quaker and trained as a pacifist, and his reasons for refusal stemmed from his religious convictions and pacifism. Hirabayashi was arrested and his case became an important test of the constitutionality of exclusion. In 1986, Hirabayashi's case was reopened and his convictions surrounding the incarceration were vacated by the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, arguing in part that, "racial bias was the cornerstone of the internment orders."

World War II (215)
Resistance and dissidence (80)
Supreme Court cases (14)
Gordon Hirabayashi (109)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Hirabayashi v. United States, Gordon Hirabayashi

109 items
Relocation problems and policies (ddr-densho-381-24)
doc Relocation problems and policies (ddr-densho-381-24)
An address delivered by War Relocation Authority Director, Dillon S. Myer, to the Tuesday Evening Club. Myer discusses a variety of topics, including the creation of the War Relocation Authority, managing the camps, and plans for relocation.
Statement by Dillon S. Myer about constitutional principles involved in the relocation program (ddr-densho-381-15)
doc Statement by Dillon S. Myer about constitutional principles involved in the relocation program (ddr-densho-381-15)
A statement from Dillon S. Myer, Director of the War Relocation Authority, presented before the Costello Sub-committee of the House Committee on Un-American Activities. Myer discusses the benefits of leave regulations in relation to the constitutionality of the evacuation and relocation program.
Interview outside of the courthouse  during Gordon Hirabayashi's hearing (ddr-densho-10-71)
img Interview outside of the courthouse during Gordon Hirabayashi's hearing (ddr-densho-10-71)
The hearing was held in Seattle, Washington in front of Judge Donald S. Voorhees.
View of the United States Courthouse in Seattle (ddr-densho-10-73)
img View of the United States Courthouse in Seattle (ddr-densho-10-73)
The Gordon Hirabayashi hearing was held here, in Seattle, Washington in front of Judge Donald S. Voorhees.
Outside of the courthouse during Gordon Hirabayashi's hearing (ddr-densho-10-70)
img Outside of the courthouse during Gordon Hirabayashi's hearing (ddr-densho-10-70)
The hearing was held in Seattle, Washington in front of Judge Donald S. Voorhees.
Gordon Hirabayashi being interviewed outside the courthouse (ddr-densho-10-75)
img Gordon Hirabayashi being interviewed outside the courthouse (ddr-densho-10-75)
The hearing was held in Seattle, Washington in front of Judge Donald S. Voorhees.
Gordon Hirabayashi being interviewed outside the courthouse (ddr-densho-10-74)
img Gordon Hirabayashi being interviewed outside the courthouse (ddr-densho-10-74)
The hearing was held in Seattle, Washington in front of Judge Donald S. Voorhees.
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 70, No. 6 (February 13, 1970) (ddr-pc-42-6)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 70, No. 6 (February 13, 1970) (ddr-pc-42-6)
Selected article titles: "Japan team to bowl in nat'l JACL tourney" (p. 1), "Sansei helped design little computer aboard Apollo 11-first to land on moon" (p. 1), "Gov. Reagan in Support of Title II Repeal" (p. 1), "Japanese and Indian claims methods against U.S. compared" (p. 1), "Chicago steps up convention planning" (p. 1), "Issue call …
Outside of the courthouse during Gordon Hirabayashi's hearing (ddr-densho-10-76)
img Outside of the courthouse during Gordon Hirabayashi's hearing (ddr-densho-10-76)
The hearing was held in Seattle, Washington in front of Judge Donald S. Voorhees.
Outside of the courthouse during Gordon Hirabayashi's hearing (ddr-densho-10-72)
img Outside of the courthouse during Gordon Hirabayashi's hearing (ddr-densho-10-72)
The hearing was held in Seattle, Washington in front of Judge Donald S. Voorhees.
Sentinel supplement, series 65 (May 7, 1943) (ddr-csujad-55-1052)
doc Sentinel supplement, series 65 (May 7, 1943) (ddr-csujad-55-1052)
News bulletin for incarcerees covering announcements, events, programs, policies, recreational activities, and jobs at Heart Mountain incarceration camp. Current issue includes information on employment, public gathering permits; fundraising for the Hirabayashi case, sick leave, victory gardens, clothing allowances, dry cleaning, and lost-and-found. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_1054
Democracy and Japanese Americans (ddr-csujad-55-344)
doc Democracy and Japanese Americans (ddr-csujad-55-344)
Pamphlet describing "evacuation", incarceration, court cases including Wakayama, Korematsu, Yasui, Hirabayashi, and Kanai, and the civil liberties issues surrounding the treatment of individuals of Japanese descent during World War II. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0346
Issei, Nisei, Kibei (ddr-csujad-55-340)
doc Issei, Nisei, Kibei (ddr-csujad-55-340)
Pamphlet covering evacuation, incarceration, loyalty of the Japanese American population, plans for "resettlement", a program to prevent further discrimination, and details on the Hirabayashi case. Includes photographs. Reprinted as "Outcasts! The Story of America's Treatment of Her Japanese-American Minority." See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0342
Outcasts!: the story of America's treatment of her Japanese-American minority (ddr-csujad-55-339)
doc Outcasts!: the story of America's treatment of her Japanese-American minority (ddr-csujad-55-339)
Pamphlet covering topics including forced evacuation, incarceration, loyalty of the Japanese American population, plans for "resettlement," a program to prevent further discrimination, and details on the Hirabayashi case. Includes photographs. Originally published in Fortune magazine as "Issei Nisei Kibei." See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0341
Letter from C. Walter Borton and Homer L. Morris to Dear Friend, May 21, 1943 (ddr-csujad-16-4)
doc Letter from C. Walter Borton and Homer L. Morris to Dear Friend, May 21, 1943 (ddr-csujad-16-4)
Report to people who have contributed financial support for the Gordon Hirabayashi case on the hearing before the Supreme Court. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: JAIC_1-07_02
Letter to Dear Friend from the Gordon Hirabayashi Defense Committee, January 1943 (ddr-csujad-16-3)
doc Letter to Dear Friend from the Gordon Hirabayashi Defense Committee, January 1943 (ddr-csujad-16-3)
Fundraising letter requesting contributions for taking Gordon Hirabayashi's case to the Circuit Court of Appeals in San Francisco. At the time of writing, Hirabayashi was imprisoned in King County, Washington. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: JAIC_1-07_01
Gordon Hirabayashi - Jim Hirabayashi Interview Segment 4 (ddr-densho-1012-9-4)
vh Gordon Hirabayashi - Jim Hirabayashi Interview Segment 4 (ddr-densho-1012-9-4)
Gordon Hirabayashi's decision to reopen his case (audio only)

This interview is audio-only. It contains raw footage used by Steven Okazaki in his 1985 film Unfinished Business.

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in …

Gordon Hirabayashi - Jim Hirabayashi Interview Segment 6 (ddr-densho-1012-9-6)
vh Gordon Hirabayashi - Jim Hirabayashi Interview Segment 6 (ddr-densho-1012-9-6)
Support of parents in Gordon's initial case (audio only)

This interview is audio-only. It contains raw footage used by Steven Okazaki in his 1985 film Unfinished Business.

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in …

Gordon Hirabayashi - Jim Hirabayashi Interview Segment 1 (ddr-densho-1012-9-1)
vh Gordon Hirabayashi - Jim Hirabayashi Interview Segment 1 (ddr-densho-1012-9-1)
Thoughts on being seen as a culture hero (audio only)

This interview is audio-only. It contains raw footage used by Steven Okazaki in his 1985 film Unfinished Business.

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed …

Gordon Hirabayashi - Jim Hirabayashi Interview Segment 3 (ddr-densho-1012-9-3)
vh Gordon Hirabayashi - Jim Hirabayashi Interview Segment 3 (ddr-densho-1012-9-3)
The lessons of Gordon Hirabayashi's case (audio only)

This interview is audio-only. It contains raw footage used by Steven Okazaki in his 1985 film Unfinished Business.

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this …

Jim Hirabayashi - Rick Shiomi Interview Segment 2 (ddr-densho-1012-12-2)
vh Jim Hirabayashi - Rick Shiomi Interview Segment 2 (ddr-densho-1012-12-2)
Remembering Gordon Hirabayashi's decision to resist the curfew (audio only)

This interview is audio-only. It contains raw footage used by Steven Okazaki in his 1985 film Unfinished Business.

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed …

Jim Hirabayashi - Rick Shiomi Interview Segment 4 (ddr-densho-1012-12-4)
vh Jim Hirabayashi - Rick Shiomi Interview Segment 4 (ddr-densho-1012-12-4)
Gordon Hirabayashi's incredible wartime story (audio only)

This interview is audio-only. It contains raw footage used by Steven Okazaki in his 1985 film Unfinished Business.

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material …

Peter Irons Interview Segment 5 (ddr-densho-1012-16-5)
vh Peter Irons Interview Segment 5 (ddr-densho-1012-16-5)
Gordon Hirabayashi's written statement challenging evacuation (audio only)

This interview is audio-only. It contains raw footage used by Steven Okazaki in his 1985 film Unfinished Business.

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this …

Gordon Hirabayashi Interview Segment 7 (ddr-densho-1012-2-7)
vh Gordon Hirabayashi Interview Segment 7 (ddr-densho-1012-2-7)
Circulating a written statement detailing reasons for resistance (audio only)

This interview is audio-only. It contains raw footage used by Steven Okazaki in his 1985 film Unfinished Business.

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed …

Gordon Hirabayashi Interview Segment 6 (ddr-densho-1012-2-6)
vh Gordon Hirabayashi Interview Segment 6 (ddr-densho-1012-2-6)
Impact of resistance on family and community (audio only)

This interview is audio-only. It contains raw footage used by Steven Okazaki in his 1985 film Unfinished Business.

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in …

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