Gordon Hirabayashi

Gordon Hirabayashi, a 24-year-old senior at the University of Washington, arrived at the FBI office in Seattle on May 16, 1942, the date that he had been ordered to register for exclusion. He handed the FBI agent a four-page statement that explained why he refused to register. Hirabayashi was raised as a Quaker and trained as a pacifist, and his reasons for refusal stemmed from his religious convictions and pacifism. Hirabayashi was arrested and his case became an important test of the constitutionality of exclusion. In 1986, Hirabayashi's case was reopened and his convictions surrounding the incarceration were vacated by the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, arguing in part that, "racial bias was the cornerstone of the internment orders."

World War II (215)
Resistance and dissidence (80)
Supreme Court cases (15)
Gordon Hirabayashi (109)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Hirabayashi v. United States, Gordon Hirabayashi

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Letter from Justice Felix Frankfurter to Chief Justice Harlan Stone (ddr-densho-67-121)
doc Letter from Justice Felix Frankfurter to Chief Justice Harlan Stone (ddr-densho-67-121)
Letter from Justice Felix Frankfurter to Chief Justice Harlan Stone about the Hirabayashi decision. Frankfurter informs Stone that there is a debate surrounding the use of language in the decision -- warns that many more habeas corpus suits could be filed if the court does not accurately state their opinion.
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