Registration and the "loyalty questionnaire"

To help administer the military draft and work release program, the U.S. Army and the War Relocation Authority (WRA) produced "loyalty questionnaires" for all Japanese Americans seventeen years of age and older. The questionnaires contained two questions that caused confusion and controversy. Despite serious problems with the wording and meaning of the questions, government officials and others generally considered those who answered "no" to these two questions to be "disloyal" to the United States, and they were transferred to the Tule Lake concentration camp which was designated a segregation camp. "Yes" answers to these questions made Japanese Americans eligible for service in the U.S. Army, and some became eligible for release and resettlement in areas outside of the West Coast exclusion zones.

World War II (231)
Administration (217)
Registration and the "loyalty questionnaire" (278)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Japanese American Joint Board, Loyalty questionnaire, Segregation

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278 items
Letter from Jennie G. Hermon, Clerk, Local Board No. 277, Selective Service System, to Nobuo Naohara, June 13, 1945 (ddr-csujad-38-575)
doc Letter from Jennie G. Hermon, Clerk, Local Board No. 277, Selective Service System, to Nobuo Naohara, June 13, 1945 (ddr-csujad-38-575)
A letter from Jennie G. Hermon, Local Board No. 277, Selective Service System, to George Nobuo Naohara incarcerated in the Tule Lake camp in California. It is the second notice requiring George to complete DDS form 304A, following their instruction. It appears that George did not respond to their previous letter, which is found in item: …
Statement of United States citizen of Japanese ancestry, DSS form 304A, Nobuo Naohara (ddr-csujad-38-574)
doc Statement of United States citizen of Japanese ancestry, DSS form 304A, Nobuo Naohara (ddr-csujad-38-574)
Statement of United States citizen of Japanese ancestry, DSS form 304A, partially filled by Selective Service System for George Nobuo Naohara. The attached letter is found in item: csudh_nao_0550. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: nao_05_15_003
Victim of the Japanese Evacuation and Resettlement Study (JERS) (ddr-csujad-26-31)
doc Victim of the Japanese Evacuation and Resettlement Study (JERS) (ddr-csujad-26-31)
An affidavit written to invalidate purported distortions and false accusations made against the author in two books published using research material collected by Rosalie Hankey Wax during de Cristoforo's incarceration at Tule Lake. The books are "Doing Fieldwork: Warnings and Advice" by Rosalie H. Wax and "The Spoilage" by Dorothy Swaine Thomas and Richard S. Nishimoto …
Bulletin, no. 49 (ddr-csujad-34-5)
doc Bulletin, no. 49 (ddr-csujad-34-5)
An issue of "Bulletin" circulated in the Manzanar camp, titled: Question revision. An assessment, that is, "loyalty questionnaire," was conducted in the Manzanar camp on February 12-16 by the War Department and WRA prior to other camps. However, the question 28 was confusing and revised before the assessment was conducted in other camps. The bulletin informed …
Enemies in Name Only (ddr-csujad-19-88)
doc Enemies in Name Only (ddr-csujad-19-88)
An editorial from "The new republic," vol. 107, no. 13, number 1452 (September 28, 1942), describes the classification and registration of aliens of enemy nationality residing within the United States. It goes on to discuss the question that what proportion of these people are 'enemies' and what proportion are 'loyal' to the United States. See this …
Japanese in Our Midst (ddr-csujad-19-50)
doc Japanese in Our Midst (ddr-csujad-19-50)
This is an article from the magazine "The Atlantic Monthly," April 1943 which provides a detailed description about the large number of Japanese American people settled in "permanent relocation centers" on the West Coast. It also talks about the distinction between citizen and non-citizen among "the Japanese evacuees." See this object in the California State Universities …
Japanese in Hawaii (ddr-csujad-19-86)
doc Japanese in Hawaii (ddr-csujad-19-86)
An article from "The new republic," vol. 107, no. 11, number 1450 (September 14, 1942), by Blake Clark describes the feeling in mainland United States, that the Japanese in Hawaii cannot be trusted as a result of the many rumors that came out after the attack on Pearl Harbor. See this object in the California State …
Citizens of Subjects? An Editorial (ddr-csujad-19-62)
doc Citizens of Subjects? An Editorial (ddr-csujad-19-62)
An article probably from the periodical, "The Christian century." It talks about the staggering blows received by American Democracy during the early months of the war. It describes how actions taken under the guise of military necessity have deprived many citizens of their constitutionally guaranteed equality before the law. See this object in the California State …
Reports on Tule Lake transfers (ddr-csujad-2-48)
doc Reports on Tule Lake transfers (ddr-csujad-2-48)
Information about 14 different incarceree transfers to Tule Lake Incarceration Camp. Reasons for transfer primarily due to loyalty questionnaire. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0048
Letter from Tommy Tomilson, Chief of Internal Security at Granada Camp to Willard E. Schmidt, Chief of Internal Security at Tule Lake Camp, May 19, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-47)
doc Letter from Tommy Tomilson, Chief of Internal Security at Granada Camp to Willard E. Schmidt, Chief of Internal Security at Tule Lake Camp, May 19, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-47)
Information about Motokazu Okada, an incarceree transfer to Tule Lake camp from Granada Camp. Transferred for persistent gambling and drinking. Also includes personal correspondence. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0047
[Straws in the wind: An inquiry into the causes of the recent flare-ups], report on Manzanar protests, 1942-08-12 (ddr-csujad-2-49)
doc [Straws in the wind: An inquiry into the causes of the recent flare-ups], report on Manzanar protests, 1942-08-12 (ddr-csujad-2-49)
Report on strike at Manzanar Incarceration camp. Report discusses unrest and discrimination within camp leading to loyalty towards Japan. Also offers suggestions to create a "Pro-America Community" within the WRA program. Also includes personal correspondence to Willard Schmidt. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0049
Community Analysis Notes, no. 1, January 15, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-84)
doc Community Analysis Notes, no. 1, January 15, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-84)
Titled as: From a Nisei who said "No." Account by an unnamed Community Analyst at Manzanar of the "life experience and viewpoints" influencing a young man's "No" response to the Army registration form's Question 28. The account stems from the analyst's notes, reproduced verbatim, from an exchange between the young man and the Hearing Board authorized …
Constitutional principles involved in the relocation program (ddr-csujad-19-67)
doc Constitutional principles involved in the relocation program (ddr-csujad-19-67)
This document is the statement by the Director of the War Relocation Authority regarding the constitutional principles involved in "the relocation program" as the program raises important questions of constitutionality. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: WRA_02-19_02
Farewell to Little Tokyo (ddr-csujad-19-76)
doc Farewell to Little Tokyo (ddr-csujad-19-76)
This document describes the sentiment of the American people towards the Japanese Americans after the attack on Pearl Harbor. It also describes the "military-forced effect of the evacuation and detention behind the barbed wire of relocation camps" on the Japanese American people. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: WRA_02-25_01
Affidavit (ddr-csujad-12-26)
doc Affidavit (ddr-csujad-12-26)
This affidavit belongs to Tsugitada Kanamori. It states that in 1945 he was repatriated to Japan in 1945 and that he did not swear allegience to the United States of America. According to the affidavit, Kanamori did so in order to keep his family together and to remain in camp. He also asserts that he was …
Attached answers to affidavit questions (ddr-csujad-12-27)
doc Attached answers to affidavit questions (ddr-csujad-12-27)
This item contains the more in-depth answers to questions on the affidavit that Tsugitada Kanamori submitted. In these extended answers to questions about Kanamori's repatriation to Japan and his refusal to pledge allegiance to the United States, he discusses his fear of violence and desire to keep his family together which resulted in his answering of …
Letter from Michi Weglyn to Frank Chin, June 24, 1994 (ddr-csujad-24-91)
doc Letter from Michi Weglyn to Frank Chin, June 24, 1994 (ddr-csujad-24-91)
A letter from Michi Weglyn to Frank Chin about Weglyn's final letters from James Omura. Included are letters from Omura about the Japanese American Citizens League (JACL), and a document of loyalty questionnaire statistics. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: chi_07_008
Story of the
doc Story of the "No/No-No/Yes" Soldiers of the 1800 General Service Battalion, U.S. Army (ddr-csujad-24-69)
In this document Cedrick M. Shimo describes the Army unit during World War II that was made up of Americans of Japanese, German, and Italian descent, who were considered "suspect." See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: chi_05_003
Michi Weglyn interview (side 3), February 20, 1998 (ddr-csujad-24-207)
doc Michi Weglyn interview (side 3), February 20, 1998 (ddr-csujad-24-207)
An interview with Michi Weglyn about the loyalty questionnaires given to people in the Japanese American incarceration camps. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: chi_74_05_003
Michi Weglyn interview (side 2), February 20, 1998 (ddr-csujad-24-206)
doc Michi Weglyn interview (side 2), February 20, 1998 (ddr-csujad-24-206)
An interview with Michi Weglyn about the loyalty questionnaires given to people in the Japanese American incarceration camps. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: chi_74_05_002
Letter from Cedrick M. Shimo to Bob Bratt, executive director, Office of Reparations Administration, Department of Justice, December 5, 1998 (ddr-csujad-24-68)
doc Letter from Cedrick M. Shimo to Bob Bratt, executive director, Office of Reparations Administration, Department of Justice, December 5, 1998 (ddr-csujad-24-68)
A letter from Cedrick M. Shimo to Bob Bratt in which Shimo makes an argument for why he should receive repatriations, even though he was not in an incarceration camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: chi_05_002
Notice from Hugo W. Wolter, Acting Chief, Community Services, War Relocation Authority Gila River Project, June 24, 1943 (ddr-csujad-42-92)
doc Notice from Hugo W. Wolter, Acting Chief, Community Services, War Relocation Authority Gila River Project, June 24, 1943 (ddr-csujad-42-92)
A notice issued by War Relocation Authority Gila River Project. It clarifies the process of the leave requests from the incarcerees whose answers to the questions 27 and 28 are in the negative. It instructs "those wishing to change their answers to questions 27 and 28" to write a letter to L. H. Bennett, Project Director …
Application for identification card, right index finger print (ddr-csujad-42-88)
doc Application for identification card, right index finger print (ddr-csujad-42-88)
A blank form of an application for identification card. Two sheets of Fumio Fred Takano's right index finger prints are attached. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tak_01_43_001
Envelope from Selective Service Local Board no. 277 to Nobuo Naohara (ddr-csujad-38-577)
doc Envelope from Selective Service Local Board no. 277 to Nobuo Naohara (ddr-csujad-38-577)
An envelope from Selective Service Local Board no. 277 to George Nobuo Naohara incarcerated in the Tule Lake camp in California. It appears that "Statement of United States citizen of Japanese ancestry," DSS form 304A, was enclosed in the envelope. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: nao_05_15_006
Note from Local Board No. 277, Selective Service System, to George Naohara, December 11, 1944 (ddr-csujad-38-572)
doc Note from Local Board No. 277, Selective Service System, to George Naohara, December 11, 1944 (ddr-csujad-38-572)
A note from Local Board No. 277, Selective Service System, to George Nobuo Naohara incarcerated in the Tule Lake camp in California. It requires George to answer all questions in DSS form 304A. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: nao_05_15_001
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