Registration and the "loyalty questionnaire"

To help administer the military draft and work release program, the U.S. Army and the War Relocation Authority (WRA) produced "loyalty questionnaires" for all Japanese Americans seventeen years of age and older. The questionnaires contained two questions that caused confusion and controversy. Despite serious problems with the wording and meaning of the questions, government officials and others generally considered those who answered "no" to these two questions to be "disloyal" to the United States, and they were transferred to the Tule Lake concentration camp which was designated a segregation camp. "Yes" answers to these questions made Japanese Americans eligible for service in the U.S. Army, and some became eligible for release and resettlement in areas outside of the West Coast exclusion zones.

World War II (231)
Administration (217)
Registration and the "loyalty questionnaire" (278)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Japanese American Joint Board, Loyalty questionnaire, Segregation

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278 items
Kenji Maruko Interview Segment 21 (ddr-densho-1010-8-21)
vh Kenji Maruko Interview Segment 21 (ddr-densho-1010-8-21)
Signing "no-no" on the so-called "loyalty questionnaire," attending meetings of other resisters

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the …

Charlie Matsubara - Mary Matsubara - Evelyn Togami Interview Segment 19 (ddr-densho-1009-3-19)
vh Charlie Matsubara - Mary Matsubara - Evelyn Togami Interview Segment 19 (ddr-densho-1009-3-19)
Feeling obligated to answer "yes" to the so-called "loyalty questions"

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of …

Fred Oda Interview Segment 20 (ddr-densho-1015-9-20)
vh Fred Oda Interview Segment 20 (ddr-densho-1015-9-20)
Answering "no-no" on the so-called "loyalty questionnaire," then changing to "yes-yes"
Nelson Takeo Akagi Interview Segment 16 (ddr-densho-1013-2-16)
vh Nelson Takeo Akagi Interview Segment 16 (ddr-densho-1013-2-16)
Family responses to the so-called "loyalty questionnaire" and draft
Nelson Takeo Akagi Interview Segment 15 (ddr-densho-1013-2-15)
vh Nelson Takeo Akagi Interview Segment 15 (ddr-densho-1013-2-15)
Being asked to sign the so-called "loyalty questionnaire" outside of camp
Norman I. Hirose Interview Segment 24 (ddr-densho-1013-7-24)
vh Norman I. Hirose Interview Segment 24 (ddr-densho-1013-7-24)
Answering "no-no" on the so-called "loyalty questionnaire" because mother wanted to go to Japan
Chizuko Iyama - Ernie Iyama Interview Segment 4 (ddr-densho-1012-5-4)
vh Chizuko Iyama - Ernie Iyama Interview Segment 4 (ddr-densho-1012-5-4)
Difficulties with the so-called "loyalty questionnaire" (audio only)

This interview is audio-only. It contains raw footage used by Steven Okazaki in his 1985 film Unfinished Business.

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this …

Eiichi Edward Sakauye Interview I Segment 14 (ddr-densho-1005-1-14)
vh Eiichi Edward Sakauye Interview I Segment 14 (ddr-densho-1005-1-14)
Transferees to and from Tule Lake

Eiichi Edward Sakauye shot footage of the Heart Mountain concentration camp, Wyoming, from 1943-1945, on 8 mm film. This interview is of Mr. Sakauye providing voice-over descriptions for his original footage.

Gene Akutsu Interview Segment 4 (ddr-densho-1016-4-4)
vh Gene Akutsu Interview Segment 4 (ddr-densho-1016-4-4)
Making the decision to resist the draft

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the Interior.

Jim Akutsu Interview Segment 7 (ddr-densho-122-12-7)
vh Jim Akutsu Interview Segment 7 (ddr-densho-122-12-7)
Answers to the so-called "loyalty questions"

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing on issues surrounding …

Michi Weglyn Interview Segment 9 (ddr-densho-122-22-9)
vh Michi Weglyn Interview Segment 9 (ddr-densho-122-22-9)
Questions over whether the leave clearance questionnaire was compulsory

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing …

Michi Weglyn Interview Segment 8 (ddr-densho-122-22-8)
vh Michi Weglyn Interview Segment 8 (ddr-densho-122-22-8)
The impact of the "loyalty oath": stirrings of organized resistance

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily …

Michi Weglyn Interview Segment 6 (ddr-densho-122-22-6)
vh Michi Weglyn Interview Segment 6 (ddr-densho-122-22-6)
The impact of the so-called "loyalty questionnaire" on families

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing …

Michi Weglyn Interview Segment 1 (ddr-densho-122-22-1)
vh Michi Weglyn Interview Segment 1 (ddr-densho-122-22-1)
Discussion of the so-called "loyalty questionnaire" and the problems it posed for the Issei and Nisei

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are …

Michi Weglyn Interview Segment 5 (ddr-densho-122-22-5)
vh Michi Weglyn Interview Segment 5 (ddr-densho-122-22-5)
The unfairness of the two so-called "loyalty questions"

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing on …

Michi Weglyn Interview Segment 3 (ddr-densho-122-22-3)
vh Michi Weglyn Interview Segment 3 (ddr-densho-122-22-3)
Theory as to why the leave clearance questionnaire was instituted

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily …

Roger Daniels Interview Segment 5 (ddr-densho-122-25-5)
vh Roger Daniels Interview Segment 5 (ddr-densho-122-25-5)
Discussion of the leave clearance questionnaire: "it was stupid and counterproductive"

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead …

Frank Emi Interview II Segment 5 (ddr-densho-122-20-5)
vh Frank Emi Interview II Segment 5 (ddr-densho-122-20-5)
Discussion of the leave clearance questionnaire: "I felt so strongly that these questions were very unfair and stupid"

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this …

Shizuko
vh Shizuko "Suzie" Sakai Interview Segment 7 (ddr-one-7-4-7)
Unrest surrounding the so-called "loyalty questionnaire" in camp

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the Interior.

Henry Sakamoto Interview Segment 12 (ddr-one-7-33-12)
vh Henry Sakamoto Interview Segment 12 (ddr-one-7-33-12)
Introduction of short- and long-term leaves in camp

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the Interior.

Frank Emi Interview Segment 6 (ddr-densho-1002-9-6)
vh Frank Emi Interview Segment 6 (ddr-densho-1002-9-6)
Deciding to qualify answers to the so-called "loyalty questions"

This interview was conducted by sisters Emiko and Chizuko Omori for their 1999 documentary, Rabbit in the Moon, about the Japanese American resisters of conscience in the World War II incarceration camps. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead …

Frank Emi Interview Segment 5 (ddr-densho-1002-9-5)
vh Frank Emi Interview Segment 5 (ddr-densho-1002-9-5)
Frustration with the "ambiguous" and "senseless" questions on the so-called "loyalty questionnaire"; posting suggested answers

This interview was conducted by sisters Emiko and Chizuko Omori for their 1999 documentary, Rabbit in the Moon, about the Japanese American resisters of conscience in the World War II incarceration camps. As a result, the interviews in this collection …

Frank Emi Interview Segment 7 (ddr-densho-1002-9-7)
vh Frank Emi Interview Segment 7 (ddr-densho-1002-9-7)
Attending hearings regarding qualified answers to the so-called "loyalty questions"

This interview was conducted by sisters Emiko and Chizuko Omori for their 1999 documentary, Rabbit in the Moon, about the Japanese American resisters of conscience in the World War II incarceration camps. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, …

Frank Emi Interview Segment 8 (ddr-densho-1002-9-8)
vh Frank Emi Interview Segment 8 (ddr-densho-1002-9-8)
Discussion of the establishment of the draft for Japanese Americans in camp

This interview was conducted by sisters Emiko and Chizuko Omori for their 1999 documentary, Rabbit in the Moon, about the Japanese American resisters of conscience in the World War II incarceration camps. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not …

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