Registration and the "loyalty questionnaire"

To help administer the military draft and work release program, the U.S. Army and the War Relocation Authority (WRA) produced "loyalty questionnaires" for all Japanese Americans seventeen years of age and older. The questionnaires contained two questions that caused confusion and controversy. Despite serious problems with the wording and meaning of the questions, government officials and others generally considered those who answered "no" to these two questions to be "disloyal" to the United States, and they were transferred to the Tule Lake concentration camp which was designated a segregation camp. "Yes" answers to these questions made Japanese Americans eligible for service in the U.S. Army, and some became eligible for release and resettlement in areas outside of the West Coast exclusion zones.

World War II (231)
Administration (217)
Registration and the "loyalty questionnaire" (282)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Japanese American Joint Board, Loyalty questionnaire, Segregation

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282 items
doc "Proposed Questions" (ddr-densho-67-29)
Document of proposed questions for determining "loyalty" based on answers to questions 27 and 28 of the so-called "loyalty questionnaire."
Telephone conversation between Colonel Bendetsen and Colonel Watson (ddr-densho-67-122)
doc Telephone conversation between Colonel Bendetsen and Colonel Watson (ddr-densho-67-122)
Transcript of telephone conversation between Colonel Bendetsen and Colonel Watson on the loyalty investigations. Bendetsen grapples with the contradictions of determining loyalty. They discuss labor needs and that General DeWitt should give a public statement on loyalty investigations.
doc "WRA Interview Questions" (ddr-densho-67-31)
Questions asked by War Relocation Authority officials when evaluating applications for persons of Japanese ancestry to leave the concentration camps.
Conversation between Colonel Bendetsen and Mr. Braum (ddr-densho-67-123)
doc Conversation between Colonel Bendetsen and Mr. Braum (ddr-densho-67-123)
Transcript of conversation between Colonel Bendetsen and Mr. Braum regarding the "loyalty investigations." Braum has been working on a public statement on loyalty -- explaining why the government waited to determine loyalty. Bendetsen is concerned about justifying internment and the loyalty investigations.
Memo from Dillon S. Myer to John J. McCloy (ddr-densho-67-62)
doc Memo from Dillon S. Myer to John J. McCloy (ddr-densho-67-62)
Memo from Dillon S. Myer to John J. McCloy on Hawaiian-Japanese evacuees. Asks McCloy to inform General Emmons to stop evacuation to the mainland. Describes situation at Jerome where Hawaiian Japanese have been difficult -- unwilling to work, answering "no" on the loyalty questionnaire. Also, there are no additional resources to provide the evacuees. Myer suggests …
Letter to the Secretary of War from President Roosevelt (ddr-densho-67-94)
doc Letter to the Secretary of War from President Roosevelt (ddr-densho-67-94)
Letter to the Secretary of War from President Roosevelt regarding the formation of all-nisei combat teams. Roosevelt discusses loyalty and Americanism as being "a matter of mind and heart," not about "race or ancestry." Roosevelt views this as a way for Japanese Americans to be included in showing their ultimate loyalty to the U.S.
doc "Leave Clearance Interviews: Suggested Topics for Questioning" (ddr-densho-67-30)
Questions for government officials to ask when interviewing persons of Japanese ancestry who were applying to leave the concentration camps.
Two memos regarding Manzanar concentration camp, California (ddr-densho-67-14)
doc Two memos regarding Manzanar concentration camp, California (ddr-densho-67-14)
The subject of these memos is the identification of suspected pro-Japanese individuals.
Conversation between Colonel Bendetsen and Captain Hall (ddr-densho-67-124)
doc Conversation between Colonel Bendetsen and Captain Hall (ddr-densho-67-124)
Transcript of conversation between Colonel Bendetsen and Captain Hall regarding loyalty investigations and relocation. Bendetsen expresses his concern with internment, especially with the public relations aspect. Gives numerous ways internment could be interpreted as a "mistake."
Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Teru Koyama (ddr-one-5-40)
Slightly yellowed envelope addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama in Camp Livingston from his wife, Teru Koyama, at Minidoka. Postmarked October 19, 1942. Along the top 10-23-1942 is written in red pencil. On the left side of the envelope is a purple "Censored" stamp. Inside the envelope is a letter dated October 17, 1942. Teru writes about …
Report on Jerome to Tule Lake transfer George Kuratomi (ddr-csujad-2-46)
doc Report on Jerome to Tule Lake transfer George Kuratomi (ddr-csujad-2-46)
Detailed informational report about George Kuratomi, an incarceree transfer to Tule Lake Camp from Jerome Camp due to questions about his loyalty to the United States and his activities within the Buddhist repatriate group at Jerome Camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0046
Report on Heart Mountain to Tule Lake transfer Sam Horino, leader of movement to challenge Selective Service for incarcerated Japanese Americans (ddr-csujad-2-45)
doc Report on Heart Mountain to Tule Lake transfer Sam Horino, leader of movement to challenge Selective Service for incarcerated Japanese Americans (ddr-csujad-2-45)
Informational report to Willard Schmidt about Sam Horino, an incarceree transferred from Heart Mountain Camp to Tule Lake Camp. Horino was accused of protesting the Selective Service program for incarcerated Japanese Americans and creating bulletins he posted throughout Heart Mountain Camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0045
Michi Weglyn interview (side 1), February 20, 1998 (ddr-csujad-24-205)
doc Michi Weglyn interview (side 1), February 20, 1998 (ddr-csujad-24-205)
An interview with Michi Weglyn about the loyalty questionnaires given to people in the Japanese American incarceration camps. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: chi_74_05_001
Letter from Jennie G. Hermon, Clerk, Local Board No. 277, Selective Service System, to Nobuo Naohara, March 2, 1945 (ddr-csujad-38-573)
doc Letter from Jennie G. Hermon, Clerk, Local Board No. 277, Selective Service System, to Nobuo Naohara, March 2, 1945 (ddr-csujad-38-573)
A letter from Jennie G. Hermon, Local Board No. 277, Selective Service System, to George Nobuo Naohara incarcerated in the Tule Lake camp in California. It requires George to answer all the questions in DDS from 304A. It appears that George did not follow their instruction, crossing out his answers on the forms, and the office …
Statement of United States citizen of Japanese ancestry, DSS form 304A, Nobuo Naohara (ddr-csujad-38-576)
doc Statement of United States citizen of Japanese ancestry, DSS form 304A, Nobuo Naohara (ddr-csujad-38-576)
Statement of United States citizen of Japanese ancestry, DSS form 304A, partially filled by Selective Service System for George Nobuo Naohara. The attached letter is found in item: csudh_nao_0552. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: nao_05_15_005
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