Gordon Hirabayashi

Gordon Hirabayashi, a 24-year-old senior at the University of Washington, arrived at the FBI office in Seattle on May 16, 1942, the date that he had been ordered to register for exclusion. He handed the FBI agent a four-page statement that explained why he refused to register. Hirabayashi was raised as a Quaker and trained as a pacifist, and his reasons for refusal stemmed from his religious convictions and pacifism. Hirabayashi was arrested and his case became an important test of the constitutionality of exclusion. In 1986, Hirabayashi's case was reopened and his convictions surrounding the incarceration were vacated by the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, arguing in part that, "racial bias was the cornerstone of the internment orders."

World War II (34)
Resistance and dissidence (10)
Supreme Court cases (10)
Gordon Hirabayashi (86)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Hirabayashi v. United States, Gordon Hirabayashi

86 items
Gordon Hirabayashi Interview Segment 9 (ddr-densho-1012-2-9)
vh Gordon Hirabayashi Interview Segment 9 (ddr-densho-1012-2-9)
Thoughts on initial trial: expecting a guilty verdict (audio only)

This interview is audio-only. It contains raw footage used by Steven Okazaki in his 1985 film Unfinished Business.

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in ...

Pacific Citizen, Vol. 102, No. 7 (February 21, 1986) (ddr-pc-58-7)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 102, No. 7 (February 21, 1986) (ddr-pc-58-7)
Selected article titles: "Hirabayashi Celebrates Victory" (pp. 1, 5), "Noted Architect Yamasaki Dies" (p. 1), "East Wind: The Canadian Nisei" (p. 4), and "From the Frying Pan: Overseas Japanese" (p. 5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 105, No. 10 (October 2, 1987) (ddr-pc-59-35)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 105, No. 10 (October 2, 1987) (ddr-pc-59-35)
Selected article titles: "AAJA Convention Has 'Write' Stuff" (pp. 1, 3, 8), "Coram Nobis Case: Court Overturns Wartime Convictions" (pp. 1, 6), "Reese Article Calls Redress Issue a Second Attack on Pearl Harbor" (p. 4), and "The Mountainous Ordeal of Passing Redress" (pp. 5-7).
Peter Irons Interview II Segment 24 (ddr-densho-1000-127-24)
vh Peter Irons Interview II Segment 24 (ddr-densho-1000-127-24)
Gordon Hirabayashi's conviction is vacated in the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, decision is made to not take the case to the Supreme Court
Gordon Hirabayashi Interview II Segment 17 (ddr-densho-1000-18-17)
vh Gordon Hirabayashi Interview II Segment 17 (ddr-densho-1000-18-17)
Handing oneself over to the FBI, and trying to accommodate a colonel's need to report "100% evacuated"
Gordon Hirabayashi Interview III Segment 8 (ddr-densho-1000-19-8)
vh Gordon Hirabayashi Interview III Segment 8 (ddr-densho-1000-19-8)
Translating father's testimony for the court, the verdict, and sentencing: "All this discussion about the Constitution... That's irrelevant."
Gordon Hirabayashi Interview V Segment 2 (ddr-densho-1000-115-2)
vh Gordon Hirabayashi Interview V Segment 2 (ddr-densho-1000-115-2)
Waiting nine months in jail before release arrangements were made by Floyd Schmoe
Letter from Justice Felix Frankfurter to Chief Justice Harlan Stone (ddr-densho-67-121)
doc Letter from Justice Felix Frankfurter to Chief Justice Harlan Stone (ddr-densho-67-121)
Letter from Justice Felix Frankfurter to Chief Justice Harlan Stone about the Hirabayashi decision. Frankfurter informs Stone that there is a debate surrounding the use of language in the decision -- warns that many more habeas corpus suits could be filed if the court does not accurately state their opinion.
Gordon Hirabayashi Interview Segment 10 (ddr-densho-1012-2-10)
vh Gordon Hirabayashi Interview Segment 10 (ddr-densho-1012-2-10)
Community responses to mass removal: discussion of reasons more people didn't resist (audio only)

This interview is audio-only. It contains raw footage used by Steven Okazaki in his 1985 film Unfinished Business.

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and ...

Gordon Hirabayashi Interview Segment 14 (ddr-densho-1012-2-14)
vh Gordon Hirabayashi Interview Segment 14 (ddr-densho-1012-2-14)
Thoughts on postwar reopening of case (audio only)

This interview is audio-only. It contains raw footage used by Steven Okazaki in his 1985 film Unfinished Business.

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material ...

Gordon Hirabayashi Interview Segment 6 (ddr-densho-1012-2-6)
vh Gordon Hirabayashi Interview Segment 6 (ddr-densho-1012-2-6)
Impact of resistance on family and community (audio only)

This interview is audio-only. It contains raw footage used by Steven Okazaki in his 1985 film Unfinished Business.

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this ...

Gordon Hirabayashi - Jim Hirabayashi Interview Segment 1 (ddr-densho-1012-9-1)
vh Gordon Hirabayashi - Jim Hirabayashi Interview Segment 1 (ddr-densho-1012-9-1)
Thoughts on being seen as a culture hero (audio only)

This interview is audio-only. It contains raw footage used by Steven Okazaki in his 1985 film Unfinished Business.

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in ...

Pacific Citizen, Vol. 102, No. 6 (February 14, 1986) (ddr-pc-58-6)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 102, No. 6 (February 14, 1986) (ddr-pc-58-6)
Selected article titles: "Hirabayashi Verdict Reached" (pp. 1, 8), "Colorado Rep Backs H.R. 442" (p. 1), "Remark on Onizuka Protested" (p. 1), and "Bill to Eliminate 'Jap' Proposed" (p. 3).
Gordon Hirabayashi Interview II Segment 18 (ddr-densho-1000-18-18)
vh Gordon Hirabayashi Interview II Segment 18 (ddr-densho-1000-18-18)
Pinning hopes on the Supreme Court: "[T]heir main existence is to uphold the Constitution ... How in the world can they uphold [the convictions] against me?"
Gordon Hirabayashi Interview V Segment 16 (ddr-densho-1000-115-16)
vh Gordon Hirabayashi Interview V Segment 16 (ddr-densho-1000-115-16)
Message to students about citizenship and equality: "you got to fight for it"
Gordon Hirabayashi Interview V Segment 14 (ddr-densho-1000-115-14)
vh Gordon Hirabayashi Interview V Segment 14 (ddr-densho-1000-115-14)
Continuing the appeal process: case is heard before the United States Supreme Court
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