Supreme Court cases

Three Japanese Americans -- Gordon Hirabayashi, Fred Korematsu and Minoru Yasui -- refused to comply with exclusion and were subsequently arrested. Together, these resisters and their court cases tested two distinct yet intertwined constitutional issues: the legality of military orders on civilians (curfew, in particular), especially as they were selectively applied on the basis of race, and the legality of exclusion, again selectively applied on the basis of race. In all three cases the litigants lost at the trial court level and appealed to the Supreme Court. The Court ultimately upheld the three men's convictions and ruled that curfew orders and exclusion were constitutional.

World War II (27)
Resistance and dissidence (10)
Supreme Court cases (10)
Gordon Hirabayashi (86)
Fred Korematsu (75)
Minoru Yasui (31)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Coram nobis cases, Duncan v. Kahanamoku, Ex parte Endo, Charles Fahy, Nishikawa v. Dulles, Oyama v. California, Takahashi v. Fish and Game Commission

10 items
Peter Irons Interview Segment 1 (ddr-densho-1012-16-1)
vh Peter Irons Interview Segment 1 (ddr-densho-1012-16-1)
Comparison of Gordon Hirabayashi's, Min Yasui's and Fred Korematsu's backgrounds (audio only)

This interview is audio-only. It contains raw footage used by Steven Okazaki in his 1985 film Unfinished Business.

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and ...

Peter Irons Interview Segment 14 (ddr-densho-1012-16-14)
vh Peter Irons Interview Segment 14 (ddr-densho-1012-16-14)
The significance of Hirabayashi's, Yasui's and Korematsu's Supreme Court cases (audio only)

This interview is audio-only. It contains raw footage used by Steven Okazaki in his 1985 film Unfinished Business.

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and ...

Pacific Citizen, Vol. 106, No. 20 (May 20, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-20)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 106, No. 20 (May 20, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-20)
Selected article titles: "Decision Not Unexpected, Says Hohri: Court Sets Back NCJAR Case" (p. 1), "Three JACL Presidential Aspirants Open Campaign at Little Tokyo Forum" (pp. 1-2), "Nakanishi Case: 'Unresolved Questions' at UCLA" (pp. 1, 4), and "Father and Daughter File Lawsuit, Charge Burbank School with Racial Bias" (p. 3).
Peter Irons Interview Segment 3 (ddr-densho-1012-16-3)
vh Peter Irons Interview Segment 3 (ddr-densho-1012-16-3)
Hirabayashi, Yasui and Korematsu as symbols for the Japanese American community (audio only)

This interview is audio-only. It contains raw footage used by Steven Okazaki in his 1985 film Unfinished Business.

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or ...

Peter Irons Interview Segment 13 (ddr-densho-1012-16-13)
vh Peter Irons Interview Segment 13 (ddr-densho-1012-16-13)
The American Civil Liberties Union's involvement in the Supreme Court Cases (audio only)

This interview is audio-only. It contains raw footage used by Steven Okazaki in his 1985 film Unfinished Business.

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions ...

Roger Daniels Interview Segment 10 (ddr-densho-1012-17-10)
vh Roger Daniels Interview Segment 10 (ddr-densho-1012-17-10)
The Japanese American Citizens League's leaders' response to Hirabayashi, Yasui and Korematsu (audio only)

This interview is audio-only. It contains raw footage used by Steven Okazaki in his 1985 film Unfinished Business.

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and ...

Peter Irons Interview Segment 12 (ddr-densho-1012-16-12)
vh Peter Irons Interview Segment 12 (ddr-densho-1012-16-12)
Government arguments in the initial cases of Hirabayashi, Yasui and Korematsu (audio only)

This interview is audio-only. It contains raw footage used by Steven Okazaki in his 1985 film Unfinished Business.

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or ...

Pacific Citizen, Vol. 107, No. 14 (November 4, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-39)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 107, No. 14 (November 4, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-39)
Selected article titles: "Redress Payments Unaffected: Supreme Court Crushes NCJAR Lawsuit" (pp. 1, 9), "Delegation Urges Reagan to Sign Census Bill" (pp. 1, 9), "Voting Dukakis Better for America" (pp. 6, 8), and "Voting Bush Is the Obvious Choice" (pp. 6-7).
Memo from Edward Ennis to Charles Fahy (ddr-densho-67-113)
doc Memo from Edward Ennis to Charles Fahy (ddr-densho-67-113)
Memo from Edward Ennis to Charles Fahy on the Korematsu case. Ennis discusses the possibility of an appeal by Korematsu and what actions they would have to take. Also warns that this case and others are the first that question the constitutionality of internment.
Memo regarding DeWitt's Final Report (ddr-densho-67-101)
doc Memo regarding DeWitt's Final Report (ddr-densho-67-101)
Memo from Edward Ennis to Francis Biddle regarding DeWitt's Final Report. Ennis describes how the War Department tried to keep the report away from the Department of Justice until he saw it by accident. Ennis is protesting the way that DeWitt portrayed the Attorney General and the Justice Department. He suggests that they convince the ...
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