Gordon Hirabayashi

Gordon Hirabayashi, a 24-year-old senior at the University of Washington, arrived at the FBI office in Seattle on May 16, 1942, the date that he had been ordered to register for exclusion. He handed the FBI agent a four-page statement that explained why he refused to register. Hirabayashi was raised as a Quaker and trained as a pacifist, and his reasons for refusal stemmed from his religious convictions and pacifism. Hirabayashi was arrested and his case became an important test of the constitutionality of exclusion. In 1986, Hirabayashi's case was reopened and his convictions surrounding the incarceration were vacated by the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, arguing in part that, "racial bias was the cornerstone of the internment orders."

World War II (66)
Resistance and dissidence (69)
Supreme Court cases (14)
Gordon Hirabayashi (105)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Hirabayashi v. United States, Gordon Hirabayashi

105 items
Letter from Justice Felix Frankfurter to Chief Justice Harlan Stone (ddr-densho-67-121)
doc Letter from Justice Felix Frankfurter to Chief Justice Harlan Stone (ddr-densho-67-121)
Letter from Justice Felix Frankfurter to Chief Justice Harlan Stone about the Hirabayashi decision. Frankfurter informs Stone that there is a debate surrounding the use of language in the decision -- warns that many more habeas corpus suits could be filed if the court does not accurately state their opinion.
Memo from Justice William Douglas to Chief Justice Harlan Stone (ddr-densho-67-120)
doc Memo from Justice William Douglas to Chief Justice Harlan Stone (ddr-densho-67-120)
Memo from Justice William Douglas to Chief Justice Harlan Stone on the Hirabayashi decision. Douglas has revised the decision to remove any sort of racial discrimination.
Affidavit of Gordon K. Hirabayashi in Support of Reply to Government's Response and Motion (ddr-densho-72-99)
doc Affidavit of Gordon K. Hirabayashi in Support of Reply to Government's Response and Motion (ddr-densho-72-99)
Gordon K. Hirabayashi v. U.S., Case No. C83-122v; U.S. District Court, Western District of Washington (Seattle).
U.S. v. Gordon Hirabayashi Government's Requested Instructions (ddr-densho-72-95)
doc U.S. v. Gordon Hirabayashi Government's Requested Instructions (ddr-densho-72-95)
U.S. v. Gordon Hirabayashi, Cr. Case No. 45738; U.S. District Court, Western District of Washington, Northern Division; Records of the U.S. District Courts (Record Group 21).
U.S. v. Gordon Hirabayashi Amended Demurrer (ddr-densho-72-93)
doc U.S. v. Gordon Hirabayashi Amended Demurrer (ddr-densho-72-93)
U.S. v. Gordon Hirabayashi, Cr. Case No. 45738; U.S. District Court, Western District of Washington, Northern Division; Records of the U.S. District Courts (Record Group 21).
U.S. v. Gordon Hirabayashi Judgment and Sentence (ddr-densho-72-96)
doc U.S. v. Gordon Hirabayashi Judgment and Sentence (ddr-densho-72-96)
U.S. v. Gordon Hirabayashi, Cr. Case No. 45738; U.S. District Court, Western District of Washington, Northern Divison; Records of the U.S. District Courts (Record Group 21).
Gordon Hirabayashi's Petition for Writ of Error, Exhibit (ddr-densho-72-97)
doc Gordon Hirabayashi's Petition for Writ of Error, Exhibit (ddr-densho-72-97)
Memorandum for the Solicitor General, April 1943 (Exhibit Q, Petition for writ of error): Gordon K. Hirabayashi v. U.S., Case No. C83-122v; District Court, Western District of Washington (Seattle).
U.S. v. Gordon Hirabayashi Proposed Instructions of the Defendant (ddr-densho-72-94)
doc U.S. v. Gordon Hirabayashi Proposed Instructions of the Defendant (ddr-densho-72-94)
U.S. v. Gordon Hirabayashi, Cr. Case No. 45738; U.S. District Court, Western District of Washington, Northern Division; Records of the U.S. District Courts (Record Group 21).
Indictment paperwork for Gordon Hirabayashi (ddr-densho-72-92)
doc Indictment paperwork for Gordon Hirabayashi (ddr-densho-72-92)
U.S. v. Gordon Hirabayashi, Cr. Case No. 45738; U.S. District Court, Western District of Washington, Northern Division; Records of the U.S. District Courts (Record Group 21).
Henry Miyatake Interview VI (ddr-densho-1000-58)
vh Henry Miyatake Interview VI (ddr-densho-1000-58)
Nisei male. Born April 28, 1929, in Seattle, Washington. Incarcerated at Puyallup Assembly Center and Minidoka concentration camp, Idaho. Had some key childhood experiences with discrimination that made him a self-described, "independent thinker," and later, an influential figure in the Japanese American community. While a teenager in camp, he wrote and defended an essay criticizing the …
Gordon Hirabayashi Interview IV (ddr-densho-1000-20)
vh Gordon Hirabayashi Interview IV (ddr-densho-1000-20)
Nisei male. Born April 23, 1918, in Seattle, Washington. Spent most of his childhood in Thomas, Washington, where his parents were part of a Christian farming co-op. Attended the University of Washington where he was active in the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA), the conscientious objector movement, and became a Quaker. At the outbreak of World …
Gordon Hirabayashi Interview III (ddr-densho-1000-19)
vh Gordon Hirabayashi Interview III (ddr-densho-1000-19)
Nisei male. Born April 23, 1918, in Seattle, Washington. Spent most of his childhood in Thomas, Washington, where his parents were part of a Christian farming co-op. Attended the University of Washington where he was active in the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA), the conscientious objector movement, and became a Quaker. At the outbreak of World …
Gordon Hirabayashi Interview II (ddr-densho-1000-18)
vh Gordon Hirabayashi Interview II (ddr-densho-1000-18)
Nisei male. Born April 23, 1918, in Seattle, Washington. Spent most of his childhood in Thomas, Washington, where his parents were part of a Christian farming co-op. Attended the University of Washington where he was active in the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA), the conscientious objector movement, and became a Quaker. At the outbreak of World …
Gordon Hirabayashi Interview I (ddr-densho-1000-17)
vh Gordon Hirabayashi Interview I (ddr-densho-1000-17)
Nisei male. Born April 23, 1918, in Seattle, Washington. Spent most of his childhood in Thomas, Washington, where his parents were part of a Christian farming co-op. Attended the University of Washington where he was active in the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA), the conscientious objector movement, and became a Quaker. At the outbreak of World …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 104, No. 16 (April 24, 1987) (ddr-pc-59-16)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 104, No. 16 (April 24, 1987) (ddr-pc-59-16)
Selected article titles: "Parallel Between Treatment of Palestinians and JAs Seen" (pp. 1, 3), "Hirabayashi, Other Asians Listed in Wash. Hall of Fame" (pp. 1, 3), "Conference to Look at How to Resolve Inter-Ethnic Conflict" (p. 3), and "Action in the Senate" (p. 4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 105, No. 10 (October 2, 1987) (ddr-pc-59-35)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 105, No. 10 (October 2, 1987) (ddr-pc-59-35)
Selected article titles: "AAJA Convention Has 'Write' Stuff" (pp. 1, 3, 8), "Coram Nobis Case: Court Overturns Wartime Convictions" (pp. 1, 6), "Reese Article Calls Redress Issue a Second Attack on Pearl Harbor" (p. 4), and "The Mountainous Ordeal of Passing Redress" (pp. 5-7).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 104, No. 6 (February 13, 1987) (ddr-pc-59-6)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 104, No. 6 (February 13, 1987) (ddr-pc-59-6)
Selected article titles: "Hearing Set for Appeals of Ruling in Hirabayashi Case" (p. 1), "Formerly Weller St.: Street in Little Tokyo Named for Astronaut" (pp. 1-2), "Government Plan to Put Arab Immigrants in Camps Alleged" (pp. 1, 3), and "Defining 'Multicultural Education'" (p. 5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 104, No. 10 (March 13, 1987) (ddr-pc-59-10)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 104, No. 10 (March 13, 1987) (ddr-pc-59-10)
Selected article titles: "Asian Admissions: UC Berkeley Report Fails to Silence Critics" (pp. 1, 3-4), "Arguments Heard in Appeal of 1985 Hirabayashi Ruling" (p. 1), "Getting Nikkei Singles Together--Nationally" (p. 5), and "Conference to Promote Sansei Leadership" (p. 8).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 106, No. 17 (April 29, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-17)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 106, No. 17 (April 29, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-17)
Selected article titles: "Senate Votes $1.3 Billion for WW2 Evacuees" (p. 1), "White House Next Step: S.1009 Passes on Strong Bipartisan Stand of 69 Yeas, 27 Nays, 4 N.V.s" (pp. 1, 4), "Japanese Americans Happy with Senate Passage" (pp. 1-2), "Japanese Canadian Redress--A Review" (pp. 3, 9), and "First Hirabayashi Case Upholds the Curfew" (pp. 4-5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 106, No. 3 (January 22, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-3)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 106, No. 3 (January 22, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-3)
Selected article titles: "Hirabayashi Case May Go to High Court" (p. 1), "Northern California Leaders Support Nakanishi" (pp. 1-2), "Congressman Vouches for JACL's Collaboration with Army in 1942" (pp. 2-3), and "Matchmaking Japanese-Style" (pp. 3, 5).
Relocation problems and policies (ddr-densho-381-24)
doc Relocation problems and policies (ddr-densho-381-24)
An address delivered by War Relocation Authority Director, Dillon S. Myer, to the Tuesday Evening Club. Myer discusses a variety of topics, including the creation of the War Relocation Authority, managing the camps, and plans for relocation.
Statement by Dillon S. Myer about constitutional principles involved in the relocation program (ddr-densho-381-15)
doc Statement by Dillon S. Myer about constitutional principles involved in the relocation program (ddr-densho-381-15)
A statement from Dillon S. Myer, Director of the War Relocation Authority, presented before the Costello Sub-committee of the House Committee on Un-American Activities. Myer discusses the benefits of leave regulations in relation to the constitutionality of the evacuation and relocation program.
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