Kibei

Kibei is the term for the generation of Nisei born in the U.S. but sent to Japan for education. When in Japan, the Kibei lived with grandparents or other relatives while their parents remained in the U.S. to work. Kibei often struggled to fit in both in Japan, where they were viewed as outsiders, and the U.S., where they were considered "too Japanese" by their Nisei peers. Because of their knowledge of both cultures and languages, the Kibei in particular were targeted by the government as "disloyal" during World War II. Ironically, the Kibei were heavily recruited for the Military Intelligence Service because of their linguistic abilities.

Kibei (104)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Harry Ueno

104 items
Nisei girls wearing kimono (ddr-densho-259-221)
img Nisei girls wearing kimono (ddr-densho-259-221)
Caption by Homer Yasui: "Yuka and Michi [Yasui] sitting, and wearing kimono. Michi is holding a cloth parasol. This is a very cute picture, and I'd guess that Yuka was around 3 years old then."
Young People's Christian Conference (ddr-densho-259-296)
img Young People's Christian Conference (ddr-densho-259-296)
Caption by Homer Yasui: "Posed group photo of another YPCC [Young People's Christian Conference], this time at the Centenary-Wilbur Church which was on the eastside of Portland." Caption on front of photograph: "Fourth Oregon Sectional Y.P.C.C. Centenary - Wilbur Church, Portland, Oregon, March 28-29, 1936."
Portrait of a Nisei boy (ddr-densho-259-259)
img Portrait of a Nisei boy (ddr-densho-259-259)
Caption by Homer Yasui: "Young Nisei boy wearing a necktie and a pullover sweater. This was 'George' Yutaka Iwasa, the only child of Inosuke and Haruye Iwasa. They lived in the Belmont district of Hood River."
Class portrait (ddr-densho-325-195)
img Class portrait (ddr-densho-325-195)
A class portrait of an all boys school in Japan where Sumito Horiuchi was education in the 1930s.
Group portrait of Japanese boys (ddr-densho-325-190)
img Group portrait of Japanese boys (ddr-densho-325-190)
Each student's name is written on the photograph. From left to right Imao, Shiyouiti, Sumito, and Minoru. On the far right is a line of smudged Japanese text.
Takashi Matsui Interview Segment 4 (ddr-densho-1008-4-4)
vh Takashi Matsui Interview Segment 4 (ddr-densho-1008-4-4)
Returning to the United States

Members of the National Japanese American Historical Society (NJAHS) arranged for and conducted this interview in conjunction with Densho.

Takashi Matsui Interview Segment 2 (ddr-densho-1008-4-2)
vh Takashi Matsui Interview Segment 2 (ddr-densho-1008-4-2)
Reasons for being taken to Japan

Members of the National Japanese American Historical Society (NJAHS) arranged for and conducted this interview in conjunction with Densho.

Frank Miyamoto Interview Segment 12 (ddr-densho-1002-1-12)
vh Frank Miyamoto Interview Segment 12 (ddr-densho-1002-1-12)
Differences between Nisei and Kibei in regards to the so-called "loyalty questionnaire"; personal reactions

This interview was conducted by sisters Emiko and Chizuko Omori for their 1999 documentary, Rabbit in the Moon, about the Japanese American resisters of conscience in the World War II incarceration camps. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically ...

Asano Terao Interview II Segment 17 (ddr-densho-1000-109-17)
vh Asano Terao Interview II Segment 17 (ddr-densho-1000-109-17)
Clashing opinions; disagreeing with the Kibeis' belief that Japan would win the war (Japanese language)

This interview was conducted in Japanese and was translated so as to convey Mrs. Terao's way of speaking as closely as possible. For example, there are instances in which she makes some grammatical errors. These mistakes are conveyed through similar ...

Takashi Matsui Interview Segment 10 (ddr-densho-1000-45-10)
vh Takashi Matsui Interview Segment 10 (ddr-densho-1000-45-10)
Comparing education in the United States and Japan: military focus in Japan
School photo (ddr-densho-321-924)
img School photo (ddr-densho-321-924)
Caption in album: "Good Ol' School Days / Kiku Fujii's class in Hakata, / Fukuoka, Japan / 1913-1921."
Roy H. Matsumoto Interview Segment 52 (ddr-densho-1000-153-52)
vh Roy H. Matsumoto Interview Segment 52 (ddr-densho-1000-153-52)
Description of relationship between Kibei and Nisei at Camp Savage, Minnesota; thoughts on the level of Japanese language education at the language school

Although Mr. Matsumoto does not identify himself as a Kibei (American-born person of Japanese ancestry sent to Japan for formal education and socialization when young and later returned to the U.S.), some ...

Roy H. Matsumoto Interview Segment 27 (ddr-densho-1000-153-27)
vh Roy H. Matsumoto Interview Segment 27 (ddr-densho-1000-153-27)
Discussion of discrimination experienced by Kibei at the hands of some Nisei who had never been to Japan

Although Mr. Matsumoto does not identify himself as a Kibei (American-born person of Japanese ancestry sent to Japan for formal education and socialization when young and later returned to the U.S.), some of his life experiences are ...

Yoshiko Tsubota Tsujihara (ddr-densho-252-35)
img Yoshiko Tsubota Tsujihara (ddr-densho-252-35)
A young woman in a kimono. Caption on Post-it: "Yoshiko Tsubota Tsujihara (Kibei)."
Young People's Christian Conference (ddr-densho-259-288)
img Young People's Christian Conference (ddr-densho-259-288)
Caption by Homer Yasui: "Posed group photo of many young Nisei This surely must have been another YPCC gathering this conference likely took place at a church in Portland."
Nisei girls wearing kimono (ddr-densho-259-223)
img Nisei girls wearing kimono (ddr-densho-259-223)
Michi and Yuka Yasui wearing kimono and posed with a parasol.
img "The Hood River Japanese Methodist Church Camp" (ddr-densho-259-285)
Caption by Homer Yasui: "The Hood River Japanese Methodist Church Camp at Tilly Jane Campground in the Mount Hood National Forest We actually camped out in tents then, and the supplies had to be hauled across the Tilly Jane Creek canyon on a cable car [This picture] includes Raymond Hiroshige (a U of O college classmate ...
Nikkei children on a farm (ddr-densho-259-273)
img Nikkei children on a farm (ddr-densho-259-273)
Caption by Homer Yasui: "Nikkei children at the Mosier farm Front row, [left to right]: Kingo Kanemasu; I think a Kajita boy; Shigenobu Yamaki; Takaaki Yasui; I think another Kajita boy; 3 unidentified girls in a row; Shizue Yasui; Reverend Isaac Inouye. Second & back rows: Mr. Hatsutaro Kajita; Michi Yasui (looking over Yakaaki Yasui's shoulder); Mary Kajita (to left ...
Young People's Christian Conference (photocopy) (ddr-densho-259-286)
img Young People's Christian Conference (photocopy) (ddr-densho-259-286)
Photocopy. Caption by Homer Yasui: "Posed group photo of many young Nisei This surely must have been another YPCC gathering this conference likely took place at a church in Portland."
Memo to John J. McCloy regarding Kibei in Hawaii (ddr-densho-67-59)
doc Memo to John J. McCloy regarding Kibei in Hawaii (ddr-densho-67-59)
Memo to John McCloy from unknown source regarding Hawaiian Kibei parolees. The author states that he had been paroling Kibei considered least dangerous and monitoring them as an alternative to transfering them to the mainland. This process only applied to a tiny population so the military would not be accused of "relaxing their vigilence." Author also ...
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