Community responses to resistance

In December 1947, President Truman pardoned all wartime draft resisters, including Nisei from the concentration camps. The pardon removed the criminal convictions from the resisters' records. However, other Japanese Americans, including some U.S. Army veterans and leaders of the Japanese American Citizens League (JACL), continued to label resisters as disloyal, unpatriotic, cowardly "draft dodgers." Some Japanese Americans blamed the resisters for increasing the public's negative attitudes toward people of Japanese ancestry. These consequences affected many resisters for the rest of their lives. Despite an official JACL apology to the resisters in 2000, many Japanese American veterans' groups and others continue to harbor negative feelings toward the resisters. Legacies of the World War II ostracism of resisters contribute to ongoing division within Japanese American communities.

World War II (215)
Resistance and dissidence (80)
Community responses to resistance (59)

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59 items
Letter from Bill Hosokawa to Cedrick Shimo (ddr-densho-122-874)
doc Letter from Bill Hosokawa to Cedrick Shimo (ddr-densho-122-874)
Re: reconciliation between various segments of Japanese American community over actions during the war
Letter to Yuri Domoto from Yoshito Shibata (ddr-densho-356-223)
doc Letter to Yuri Domoto from Yoshito Shibata (ddr-densho-356-223)
Letter to Yuriko Domoto Tsukada from Yoshito Shibata in which he recalls a month long recruitment trip to some of the WRA camps for qualified Niseis to join MIS. His writing includes a mention for being present to an incident at Poston (possibly the Poston Strike or the incidences that lead to the strike). He talks …
Jim Akutsu Segment 24 (ddr-densho-1000-2-24)
vh Jim Akutsu Segment 24 (ddr-densho-1000-2-24)
Postwar community ostracism of the draft resisters

Interview was conducted over two days because of delays caused by technical difficulties.

Jim Akutsu Segment 42 (ddr-densho-1000-2-42)
vh Jim Akutsu Segment 42 (ddr-densho-1000-2-42)
Impact of two brothers who both resisted the draft

Interview was conducted over two days because of delays caused by technical difficulties.

Jim Akutsu Segment 23 (ddr-densho-1000-2-23)
vh Jim Akutsu Segment 23 (ddr-densho-1000-2-23)
Mother's suicide as a result of ostracism by Japanese American community postwar

Interview was conducted over two days because of delays caused by technical difficulties.

Gene Akutsu Segment 24 (ddr-densho-1000-1-24)
vh Gene Akutsu Segment 24 (ddr-densho-1000-1-24)
Impact of draft resistance on family: harsh response from Japanese American community contributes to Mother's suicide
Gene Akutsu Segment 21 (ddr-densho-1000-1-21)
vh Gene Akutsu Segment 21 (ddr-densho-1000-1-21)
Reaction of the Japanese American community towards draft resisters
Bill Hosokawa Interview Segment 16 (ddr-densho-1000-129-16)
vh Bill Hosokawa Interview Segment 16 (ddr-densho-1000-129-16)
Thoughts on the resisters: admired their courage, but felt that "it wouldn't gain us anything"
Bill Hosokawa Interview Segment 22 (ddr-densho-1000-129-22)
vh Bill Hosokawa Interview Segment 22 (ddr-densho-1000-129-22)
Feelings about the resisters: have to understand the situation at the time
Masao Watanabe Segment 28 (ddr-densho-1000-103-28)
vh Masao Watanabe Segment 28 (ddr-densho-1000-103-28)
Feelings about draft resisters in the camps while on the front line

At the time this interview was taped, Mr. Watanabe was recovering from a recent series of cancer treatments.

Masao Watanabe Segment 50 (ddr-densho-1000-103-50)
vh Masao Watanabe Segment 50 (ddr-densho-1000-103-50)
A veteran's thoughts on "no-no" boys

At the time this interview was taped, Mr. Watanabe was recovering from a recent series of cancer treatments.

Harry K. Yoshikawa Interview Segment 30 (ddr-densho-1000-278-30)
vh Harry K. Yoshikawa Interview Segment 30 (ddr-densho-1000-278-30)
Thoughts on the Japanese American Citizens League's actions toward draft resisters: "I think that was kind of appalling"

Due to technical difficulties during the taping of this interview, the interviewer's voice is considerably louder than the narrator's. This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. …

Harry K. Yoshikawa Interview Segment 29 (ddr-densho-1000-278-29)
vh Harry K. Yoshikawa Interview Segment 29 (ddr-densho-1000-278-29)
Talking more openly about wartime draft resistance

Due to technical difficulties during the taping of this interview, the interviewer's voice is considerably louder than the narrator's. This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material …

Tom Akashi Interview Segment 39 (ddr-densho-1000-164-39)
vh Tom Akashi Interview Segment 39 (ddr-densho-1000-164-39)
Observing mother's peers turning against her after her husband's arrest and removal from Tule Lake
Jimmie Omura Interview Segment 25 (ddr-densho-1002-11-25)
vh Jimmie Omura Interview Segment 25 (ddr-densho-1002-11-25)
Experiencing ostracism from the Japanese American community postwar; reflections on life

This interview was conducted by sisters Emiko and Chizuko Omori for their 1999 documentary, Rabbit in the Moon, about the Japanese American resisters of conscience in the World War II incarceration camps. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life …

Mits Koshiyama Interview Segment 10 (ddr-densho-1002-6-10)
vh Mits Koshiyama Interview Segment 10 (ddr-densho-1002-6-10)
The stigma attached to being a resister: "we were never against the veterans"

This interview was conducted by sisters Emiko and Chizuko Omori for their 1999 documentary, Rabbit in the Moon, about the Japanese American resisters of conscience in the World War II incarceration camps. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically …

Clifford Uyeda Interview Segment 15 (ddr-densho-122-19-15)
vh Clifford Uyeda Interview Segment 15 (ddr-densho-122-19-15)
Reading and discussion of the 1990 Golden Gate resolution

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing …

Clifford Uyeda Interview Segment 7 (ddr-densho-122-19-7)
vh Clifford Uyeda Interview Segment 7 (ddr-densho-122-19-7)
Thoughts on the treatment of the draft resisters by the JACL, Japanese American community, and Nisei veterans

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection …

Clifford Uyeda Interview Segment 8 (ddr-densho-122-19-8)
vh Clifford Uyeda Interview Segment 8 (ddr-densho-122-19-8)
Trying to reconcile the draft resisters with the JACL

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing …

Clifford Uyeda Interview Segment 18 (ddr-densho-122-19-18)
vh Clifford Uyeda Interview Segment 18 (ddr-densho-122-19-18)
The effects of both the resistance movement and the World War II actions of the JACL on Japanese American identity today

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the …

Clifford Uyeda Interview Segment 16 (ddr-densho-122-19-16)
vh Clifford Uyeda Interview Segment 16 (ddr-densho-122-19-16)
Desire for the JACL to admit its past wrongs during World War II, and apologize for the way some of its members treated the draft resisters

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration …

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