Community responses to resistance

In December 1947, President Truman pardoned all wartime draft resisters, including Nisei from the concentration camps. The pardon removed the criminal convictions from the resisters' records. However, other Japanese Americans, including some U.S. Army veterans and leaders of the Japanese American Citizens League (JACL), continued to label resisters as disloyal, unpatriotic, cowardly "draft dodgers." Some Japanese Americans blamed the resisters for increasing the public's negative attitudes toward people of Japanese ancestry. These consequences affected many resisters for the rest of their lives. Despite an official JACL apology to the resisters in 2000, many Japanese American veterans' groups and others continue to harbor negative feelings toward the resisters. Legacies of the World War II ostracism of resisters contribute to ongoing division within Japanese American communities.

World War II (231)
Resistance and dissidence (84)
Community responses to resistance (61)

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61 items
Bill Hosokawa Interview Segment 5 (ddr-densho-122-26-5)
vh Bill Hosokawa Interview Segment 5 (ddr-densho-122-26-5)
Belief that the actions of the World War II draft resisters "endangered a lot of other people"
Randy Senzaki Interview Segment 2 (ddr-densho-122-18-2)
vh Randy Senzaki Interview Segment 2 (ddr-densho-122-18-2)
Frustration with the JACL's "denial" regarding apologizing to the World War II resisters of conscience

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically …

Randy Senzaki Interview Segment 8 (ddr-densho-122-18-8)
vh Randy Senzaki Interview Segment 8 (ddr-densho-122-18-8)
Description of resisters' panel at the Salt Lake City National JACL convention

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, …

Randy Senzaki Interview Segment 3 (ddr-densho-122-18-3)
vh Randy Senzaki Interview Segment 3 (ddr-densho-122-18-3)
As national director of the JACL, attempting to bridge the gap with resisters, and turn the JACL into a civil rights organization

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, …

Randy Senzaki Interview Segment 10 (ddr-densho-122-18-10)
vh Randy Senzaki Interview Segment 10 (ddr-densho-122-18-10)
The attitude of some Japanese Americans to the resisters: "they're unwilling to find the forgiveness in their hearts"

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this …

Randy Senzaki Interview Segment 7 (ddr-densho-122-18-7)
vh Randy Senzaki Interview Segment 7 (ddr-densho-122-18-7)
Thoughts on the courage of the resisters; the resisters' mistreatment postwar by the Japanese American community

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are …

Randy Senzaki Interview Segment 5 (ddr-densho-122-18-5)
vh Randy Senzaki Interview Segment 5 (ddr-densho-122-18-5)
Thoughts on the JACL's inability to apologize to the resisters

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily …

Gene Akutsu Interview Segment 5 (ddr-densho-1016-4-5)
vh Gene Akutsu Interview Segment 5 (ddr-densho-1016-4-5)
Impact of draft resistance

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the Interior.

Gene Akutsu Interview Segment 6 (ddr-densho-1016-4-6)
vh Gene Akutsu Interview Segment 6 (ddr-densho-1016-4-6)
Rebuilding life after serving time in jail for resisting the draft

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department …

Mits Koshiyama Interview Segment 10 (ddr-densho-1002-6-10)
vh Mits Koshiyama Interview Segment 10 (ddr-densho-1002-6-10)
The stigma attached to being a resister: "we were never against the veterans"

This interview was conducted by sisters Emiko and Chizuko Omori for their 1999 documentary, Rabbit in the Moon, about the Japanese American resisters of conscience in the World War II incarceration camps. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically …

Jimmie Omura Interview Segment 25 (ddr-densho-1002-11-25)
vh Jimmie Omura Interview Segment 25 (ddr-densho-1002-11-25)
Experiencing ostracism from the Japanese American community postwar; reflections on life

This interview was conducted by sisters Emiko and Chizuko Omori for their 1999 documentary, Rabbit in the Moon, about the Japanese American resisters of conscience in the World War II incarceration camps. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life …

Jim Akutsu Segment 24 (ddr-densho-1000-2-24)
vh Jim Akutsu Segment 24 (ddr-densho-1000-2-24)
Postwar community ostracism of the draft resisters

Interview was conducted over two days because of delays caused by technical difficulties.

Jim Akutsu Segment 42 (ddr-densho-1000-2-42)
vh Jim Akutsu Segment 42 (ddr-densho-1000-2-42)
Impact of two brothers who both resisted the draft

Interview was conducted over two days because of delays caused by technical difficulties.

Jim Akutsu Segment 23 (ddr-densho-1000-2-23)
vh Jim Akutsu Segment 23 (ddr-densho-1000-2-23)
Mother's suicide as a result of ostracism by Japanese American community postwar

Interview was conducted over two days because of delays caused by technical difficulties.

Bill Hosokawa Interview Segment 16 (ddr-densho-1000-129-16)
vh Bill Hosokawa Interview Segment 16 (ddr-densho-1000-129-16)
Thoughts on the resisters: admired their courage, but felt that "it wouldn't gain us anything"
Masao Watanabe Segment 50 (ddr-densho-1000-103-50)
vh Masao Watanabe Segment 50 (ddr-densho-1000-103-50)
A veteran's thoughts on "no-no" boys

At the time this interview was taped, Mr. Watanabe was recovering from a recent series of cancer treatments.

Bill Hosokawa Interview Segment 22 (ddr-densho-1000-129-22)
vh Bill Hosokawa Interview Segment 22 (ddr-densho-1000-129-22)
Feelings about the resisters: have to understand the situation at the time
Gene Akutsu Segment 24 (ddr-densho-1000-1-24)
vh Gene Akutsu Segment 24 (ddr-densho-1000-1-24)
Impact of draft resistance on family: harsh response from Japanese American community contributes to Mother's suicide
Gene Akutsu Segment 21 (ddr-densho-1000-1-21)
vh Gene Akutsu Segment 21 (ddr-densho-1000-1-21)
Reaction of the Japanese American community towards draft resisters
Masao Watanabe Segment 28 (ddr-densho-1000-103-28)
vh Masao Watanabe Segment 28 (ddr-densho-1000-103-28)
Feelings about draft resisters in the camps while on the front line

At the time this interview was taped, Mr. Watanabe was recovering from a recent series of cancer treatments.

Harry K. Yoshikawa Interview Segment 29 (ddr-densho-1000-278-29)
vh Harry K. Yoshikawa Interview Segment 29 (ddr-densho-1000-278-29)
Talking more openly about wartime draft resistance

Due to technical difficulties during the taping of this interview, the interviewer's voice is considerably louder than the narrator's. This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material …

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