Community responses to resistance

In December 1947, President Truman pardoned all wartime draft resisters, including Nisei from the concentration camps. The pardon removed the criminal convictions from the resisters' records. However, other Japanese Americans, including some U.S. Army veterans and leaders of the Japanese American Citizens League (JACL), continued to label resisters as disloyal, unpatriotic, cowardly "draft dodgers." Some Japanese Americans blamed the resisters for increasing the public's negative attitudes toward people of Japanese ancestry. These consequences affected many resisters for the rest of their lives. Despite an official JACL apology to the resisters in 2000, many Japanese American veterans' groups and others continue to harbor negative feelings toward the resisters. Legacies of the World War II ostracism of resisters contribute to ongoing division within Japanese American communities.

World War II (215)
Resistance and dissidence (80)
Community responses to resistance (59)

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59 items
Randy Senzaki Interview Segment 7 (ddr-densho-122-18-7)
vh Randy Senzaki Interview Segment 7 (ddr-densho-122-18-7)
Thoughts on the courage of the resisters; the resisters' mistreatment postwar by the Japanese American community

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are …

Randy Senzaki Interview Segment 10 (ddr-densho-122-18-10)
vh Randy Senzaki Interview Segment 10 (ddr-densho-122-18-10)
The attitude of some Japanese Americans to the resisters: "they're unwilling to find the forgiveness in their hearts"

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this …

Randy Senzaki Interview Segment 5 (ddr-densho-122-18-5)
vh Randy Senzaki Interview Segment 5 (ddr-densho-122-18-5)
Thoughts on the JACL's inability to apologize to the resisters

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily …

Jim Akutsu Interview Segment 8 (ddr-densho-122-12-8)
vh Jim Akutsu Interview Segment 8 (ddr-densho-122-12-8)
Receiving the silent treatment from the Japanese American community postwar

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily …

Paul Tsuneishi Interview Segment 4 (ddr-densho-122-24-4)
vh Paul Tsuneishi Interview Segment 4 (ddr-densho-122-24-4)
The postwar ostracization of the resisters

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing on issues surrounding …

Paul Tsuneishi Interview Segment 1 (ddr-densho-122-24-1)
vh Paul Tsuneishi Interview Segment 1 (ddr-densho-122-24-1)
Feelings about the Japanese American Citizens League

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing on issues …

Kenji Taguma Interview Segment 1 (ddr-densho-122-28-1)
vh Kenji Taguma Interview Segment 1 (ddr-densho-122-28-1)
Description of a Japanese American Citizens League resolution regarding the wartime draft resisters

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life …

Jimmie Omura Interview Segment 25 (ddr-densho-1002-11-25)
vh Jimmie Omura Interview Segment 25 (ddr-densho-1002-11-25)
Experiencing ostracism from the Japanese American community postwar; reflections on life

This interview was conducted by sisters Emiko and Chizuko Omori for their 1999 documentary, Rabbit in the Moon, about the Japanese American resisters of conscience in the World War II incarceration camps. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life …

Gene Akutsu Interview Segment 5 (ddr-densho-1016-4-5)
vh Gene Akutsu Interview Segment 5 (ddr-densho-1016-4-5)
Impact of draft resistance

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the Interior.

Gene Akutsu Interview Segment 6 (ddr-densho-1016-4-6)
vh Gene Akutsu Interview Segment 6 (ddr-densho-1016-4-6)
Rebuilding life after serving time in jail for resisting the draft

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department …

Jim Akutsu Segment 24 (ddr-densho-1000-2-24)
vh Jim Akutsu Segment 24 (ddr-densho-1000-2-24)
Postwar community ostracism of the draft resisters

Interview was conducted over two days because of delays caused by technical difficulties.

Jim Akutsu Segment 42 (ddr-densho-1000-2-42)
vh Jim Akutsu Segment 42 (ddr-densho-1000-2-42)
Impact of two brothers who both resisted the draft

Interview was conducted over two days because of delays caused by technical difficulties.

Gene Akutsu Segment 24 (ddr-densho-1000-1-24)
vh Gene Akutsu Segment 24 (ddr-densho-1000-1-24)
Impact of draft resistance on family: harsh response from Japanese American community contributes to Mother's suicide
Gene Akutsu Segment 21 (ddr-densho-1000-1-21)
vh Gene Akutsu Segment 21 (ddr-densho-1000-1-21)
Reaction of the Japanese American community towards draft resisters
Jim Akutsu Segment 23 (ddr-densho-1000-2-23)
vh Jim Akutsu Segment 23 (ddr-densho-1000-2-23)
Mother's suicide as a result of ostracism by Japanese American community postwar

Interview was conducted over two days because of delays caused by technical difficulties.

Masao Watanabe Segment 28 (ddr-densho-1000-103-28)
vh Masao Watanabe Segment 28 (ddr-densho-1000-103-28)
Feelings about draft resisters in the camps while on the front line

At the time this interview was taped, Mr. Watanabe was recovering from a recent series of cancer treatments.

Frank Yamasaki Interview I Segment 34 (ddr-densho-1000-107-34)
vh Frank Yamasaki Interview I Segment 34 (ddr-densho-1000-107-34)
Starting over after the war: denial of all things Japanese, and attitude toward pardon of draft resisters
Frank Yamasaki Interview I Segment 33 (ddr-densho-1000-107-33)
vh Frank Yamasaki Interview I Segment 33 (ddr-densho-1000-107-33)
Intimidation by other Japanese Americans in response to wartime draft resistance
Bill Hosokawa Interview Segment 16 (ddr-densho-1000-129-16)
vh Bill Hosokawa Interview Segment 16 (ddr-densho-1000-129-16)
Thoughts on the resisters: admired their courage, but felt that "it wouldn't gain us anything"
Bill Hosokawa Interview Segment 22 (ddr-densho-1000-129-22)
vh Bill Hosokawa Interview Segment 22 (ddr-densho-1000-129-22)
Feelings about the resisters: have to understand the situation at the time
May K. Sasaki Segment 36 (ddr-densho-1000-79-36)
vh May K. Sasaki Segment 36 (ddr-densho-1000-79-36)
Thoughts on the JACL's "no-no" boy resolution: "a time to heal wounds for everybody"
Masao Watanabe Segment 50 (ddr-densho-1000-103-50)
vh Masao Watanabe Segment 50 (ddr-densho-1000-103-50)
A veteran's thoughts on "no-no" boys

At the time this interview was taped, Mr. Watanabe was recovering from a recent series of cancer treatments.

Mits Koshiyama Interview Segment 19 (ddr-densho-1000-130-19)
vh Mits Koshiyama Interview Segment 19 (ddr-densho-1000-130-19)
Difficulties faced by resisters after the war; ways of showing patriotism and loyalty other than serving in the military
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