Community responses to resistance

In December 1947, President Truman pardoned all wartime draft resisters, including Nisei from the concentration camps. The pardon removed the criminal convictions from the resisters' records. However, other Japanese Americans, including some U.S. Army veterans and leaders of the Japanese American Citizens League (JACL), continued to label resisters as disloyal, unpatriotic, cowardly "draft dodgers." Some Japanese Americans blamed the resisters for increasing the public's negative attitudes toward people of Japanese ancestry. These consequences affected many resisters for the rest of their lives. Despite an official JACL apology to the resisters in 2000, many Japanese American veterans' groups and others continue to harbor negative feelings toward the resisters. Legacies of the World War II ostracism of resisters contribute to ongoing division within Japanese American communities.

World War II (215)
Resistance and dissidence (80)
Community responses to resistance (59)

59 items
Harry K. Yoshikawa Interview Segment 29 (ddr-densho-1000-278-29)
vh Harry K. Yoshikawa Interview Segment 29 (ddr-densho-1000-278-29)
Talking more openly about wartime draft resistance

Due to technical difficulties during the taping of this interview, the interviewer's voice is considerably louder than the narrator's. This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material …

Tom Akashi Interview Segment 39 (ddr-densho-1000-164-39)
vh Tom Akashi Interview Segment 39 (ddr-densho-1000-164-39)
Observing mother's peers turning against her after her husband's arrest and removal from Tule Lake
Francis Mas Fukuhara Segment 24 (ddr-densho-1000-9-24)
vh Francis Mas Fukuhara Segment 24 (ddr-densho-1000-9-24)
Thoughts on the Japanese American Citizens League's handling of the draft resisters issue
Francis Mas Fukuhara Segment 26 (ddr-densho-1000-9-26)
vh Francis Mas Fukuhara Segment 26 (ddr-densho-1000-9-26)
A veteran's perspective on the World War II resisters of conscience
Satsuki Ina Segment 7 (ddr-densho-1000-474-7)
vh Satsuki Ina Segment 7 (ddr-densho-1000-474-7)
Community response to film about parents' wartime experiences
Jim Akutsu Interview Segment 8 (ddr-densho-122-12-8)
vh Jim Akutsu Interview Segment 8 (ddr-densho-122-12-8)
Receiving the silent treatment from the Japanese American community postwar

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily …

Paul Tsuneishi Interview Segment 4 (ddr-densho-122-24-4)
vh Paul Tsuneishi Interview Segment 4 (ddr-densho-122-24-4)
The postwar ostracization of the resisters

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing on issues surrounding …

Paul Tsuneishi Interview Segment 1 (ddr-densho-122-24-1)
vh Paul Tsuneishi Interview Segment 1 (ddr-densho-122-24-1)
Feelings about the Japanese American Citizens League

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing on issues …

Kenji Taguma Interview Segment 1 (ddr-densho-122-28-1)
vh Kenji Taguma Interview Segment 1 (ddr-densho-122-28-1)
Description of a Japanese American Citizens League resolution regarding the wartime draft resisters

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life …

Clifford Uyeda Interview Segment 15 (ddr-densho-122-19-15)
vh Clifford Uyeda Interview Segment 15 (ddr-densho-122-19-15)
Reading and discussion of the 1990 Golden Gate resolution

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing …

Clifford Uyeda Interview Segment 7 (ddr-densho-122-19-7)
vh Clifford Uyeda Interview Segment 7 (ddr-densho-122-19-7)
Thoughts on the treatment of the draft resisters by the JACL, Japanese American community, and Nisei veterans

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection …

Clifford Uyeda Interview Segment 8 (ddr-densho-122-19-8)
vh Clifford Uyeda Interview Segment 8 (ddr-densho-122-19-8)
Trying to reconcile the draft resisters with the JACL

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing …

Dave Kawamoto Interview Segment 8 (ddr-densho-122-9-8)
vh Dave Kawamoto Interview Segment 8 (ddr-densho-122-9-8)
Response to JACL's name-calling: "it made me feel kind of betrayed"

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead …

Clifford Uyeda Interview Segment 18 (ddr-densho-122-19-18)
vh Clifford Uyeda Interview Segment 18 (ddr-densho-122-19-18)
The effects of both the resistance movement and the World War II actions of the JACL on Japanese American identity today

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the …

Clifford Uyeda Interview Segment 16 (ddr-densho-122-19-16)
vh Clifford Uyeda Interview Segment 16 (ddr-densho-122-19-16)
Desire for the JACL to admit its past wrongs during World War II, and apologize for the way some of its members treated the draft resisters

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration …

Mits Koshiyama Interview Segment 9 (ddr-densho-122-10-9)
vh Mits Koshiyama Interview Segment 9 (ddr-densho-122-10-9)
Thoughts on the relationship between resisters and veterans

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing on …

Fred Hirasuna Interview Segment 3 (ddr-densho-122-29-3)
vh Fred Hirasuna Interview Segment 3 (ddr-densho-122-29-3)
Feelings on the views of the Heart Mountain resisters

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing …

Fred Hirasuna Interview Segment 8 (ddr-densho-122-29-8)
vh Fred Hirasuna Interview Segment 8 (ddr-densho-122-29-8)
Opinion that the resisters of conscience were "harming the cause of the entire group"

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not …

Mits Koshiyama Interview Segment 5 (ddr-densho-122-10-5)
vh Mits Koshiyama Interview Segment 5 (ddr-densho-122-10-5)
Facing the postwar charge of "draft dodger": "we were never cowards"

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead …

Fred Hirasuna Interview Segment 1 (ddr-densho-122-29-1)
vh Fred Hirasuna Interview Segment 1 (ddr-densho-122-29-1)
Opinion of the Heart Mountain Fair Play Committee

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing on …

Yosh Kuromiya Interview Segment 6 (ddr-densho-122-8-6)
vh Yosh Kuromiya Interview Segment 6 (ddr-densho-122-8-6)
Feeling "betrayed" by the Japanese American Citizens League

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing on …

Andy Noguchi Interview Segment 1 (ddr-densho-122-27-1)
vh Andy Noguchi Interview Segment 1 (ddr-densho-122-27-1)
Description of the JACL resolution proposed in 1999 to recognize the constitutional stand of the wartime draft resisters

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this …

Andy Noguchi Interview Segment 2 (ddr-densho-122-27-2)
vh Andy Noguchi Interview Segment 2 (ddr-densho-122-27-2)
Different reactions to the resolution

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing on issues surrounding the …

Roger Daniels Interview Segment 2 (ddr-densho-122-25-2)
vh Roger Daniels Interview Segment 2 (ddr-densho-122-25-2)
Background of the resistance movement and the response of the JACL and the ACLU to their stand

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection …

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