Redress and reparations

In the late 1960s, Japanese Americans began to revisit the history of the exclusion and incarceration period in order to seek justice for their suffering and ensure that no such wrong would ever be committed again. Years of effort by community activists, politicians, academics, and other supporters culminated on August 10, 1988, with the signing of the Civil Liberties Act by President Ronald Reagan. This Act rescinded Executive Order 9066, and mandated an official apology from the federal government, monetary reparations payments to individuals excluded and incarcerated, and the creation of a federal fund for research and education about the incarceration.

Redress and reparations (933)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Civil Liberties Act of 1988, Civil Liberties Public Education Fund, Emergency Detention Act, Title II of the Internal Security Act of 1950, Aiko Herzig-Yoshinaga, William Hohri, Bill Hosokawa, Japanese American Evacuation Claims Act, Yuri Kochiyama, Magic cables, Kazuo Masuda, Robert Matsui, Spark Matsunaga, Norman Mineta, National Coalition for Redress/Reparations, National Council for Japanese American Redress, James Omura, Redress movement, Termination of Executive Order 9066, Mary Tsukamoto, Edison Uno, Clifford Uyeda

933 items
Tule Lake northern boundary fence and guard towers (ddr-densho-345-95)
img Tule Lake northern boundary fence and guard towers (ddr-densho-345-95)
A series of photographs taken by Harry Gamble and his team at Manzanar and Tule Lake concentration camps as part of their research. This research was then used to lobby for Tule Lake and not Manzanar be the camp to be designated a National Historic Landmark.
Tule Lake internee barracks (ddr-densho-345-136)
img Tule Lake internee barracks (ddr-densho-345-136)
A series of photographs taken by Harry Gamble and his team at Manzanar and Tule Lake concentration camps as part of their research. This research was then used to lobby for Tule Lake and not Manzanar be the camp to be designated a National Historic Landmark.
Tule Lake internee barracks (ddr-densho-345-147)
img Tule Lake internee barracks (ddr-densho-345-147)
A series of photographs taken by Harry Gamble and his team at Manzanar and Tule Lake concentration camps as part of their research. This research was then used to lobby for Tule Lake and not Manzanar be the camp to be designated a National Historic Landmark.
Manzanar internee housing area (ddr-densho-345-80)
img Manzanar internee housing area (ddr-densho-345-80)
A series of photographs taken by Harry Gamble and his team at Manzanar and Tule Lake concentration camps as part of their research. This research was then used to lobby for Tule Lake and not Manzanar be the camp to be designated a National Historic Landmark.
Manzanar internee rock garden (ddr-densho-345-84)
img Manzanar internee rock garden (ddr-densho-345-84)
A series of photographs taken by Harry Gamble and his team at Manzanar and Tule Lake concentration camps as part of their research. This research was then used to lobby for Tule Lake and not Manzanar be the camp to be designated a National Historic Landmark.
Letter from Robert T. Matsui to Frank Sato (ddr-densho-345-67)
doc Letter from Robert T. Matsui to Frank Sato (ddr-densho-345-67)
Robert Matsui a congressman from California's 3rd District congratulates Frank Sato on enlisting the help of Vice President Mondale in redress fundraising efforts.
White House war reparation letter (ddr-densho-308-8)
doc White House war reparation letter (ddr-densho-308-8)
When Mae Hara received her reparation letter and check, she said she was stunned. She used the money received from the government to buy a new echo organ for her church in Madison, Wisconsin. Hara dedicated the donation to the memory of her parents, Kinmatsu and Chiyoko Kanazawa.
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 53 (June 23, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-121)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 53 (June 23, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-121)
"Community Honors Nisei War Dead. Fitting Memorial Services Pay Tribute to First Eight in Area; 1,000 Gather in First Methodist" (pg. 1), "Red Cross Pleads for More Aid to Assist Vanport Victims" (pg. 3), "Evacuation Claims Bill Needs Only President's Signature" (pg. 3), "D.C. Responds to Flood Plea" (pg. 5).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 49 (July 15, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-36)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 49 (July 15, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-36)
"Accept Business Permit Applications to Japan" (p. 1), "JACL Goes Ahead to Speed Plans to Honor Nisei at Arlington" (p. 1), "Commons OK's Board to Sift Ouster Losses" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 98 (November 27, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-159)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 98 (November 27, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-159)
"Sabath Vows Support of Issei Rights" (p. 1), "Bias Noted in Chicago Cemeteries" (p. 1), "Claim Queries and Answers" (p. 1), "Community Basketball Season to Start Next Wed.,Dec. 1" (p. 3).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 32 (April 20, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-199)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 32 (April 20, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-199)
"ADC Fund Push Opens with Kickoff Luncheon" (p. 1), "Evacuation Claims Queries, Replies" (p. 2), "ADC to Ask Amendment to HR 199" (p. 2).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 46 (July 1, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-34)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 46 (July 1, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-34)
"House Will Get Claims Board Measure Soon" (p. 1), "House to Study H.R. 3555" (p. 1)
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 3 (January 10, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-2)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 3 (January 10, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-2)
"U.S. Court Hears Status of 5,500 Nisei" (p. 1), "Seeks Passage of Claims Bill" (p. 1), "M.I.S. Grads Total 2,675 in Monterey" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 97 (December 3, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-234)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 97 (December 3, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-234)
"JACL to Submit Memo to U.S. on Claims Matter" (p. 1), "Wash. State Bonus Queries Clarified" (p. 1), "If You Have Any Evacuation Claims, File Before Jan. 2, ADC Suggests" (p. 1)
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 5 (January 15, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-172)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 5 (January 15, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-172)
"Hawaii Pushes ENI Measure" (p. 1), "Additional Claims Queries, Replies" (p. 1), "They'll Consider Equality Bill" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 74 (October 10, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-61)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 74 (October 10, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-61)
"Nisei War Dead on Second Shipment of State Servicemen Killed in Action" (p. 1), "New Local 7 Cannery Union Officers Will be Installed on Nov. 1" (p. 1), "JCCC Promises Legal Experts for Japanese" (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 14 (February 16, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-181)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 14 (February 16, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-181)
"Civil Liberties Unit Hears JACL Leader" (p. 1), "Third Annual N.W. Nisei Basketball Tournament Opens This Friday Night in Buddhist Auditorium; Social Feature Will Be Sports Dance on Sunday Night" (p. 1), "Evacuation Claims Queries, Replies" (p. 2).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 88 (December 2, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-74)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 88 (December 2, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-74)
"Attorney General's Approval on Claims Bill Sought. Masaoka Appeals to Folsom in Civil Rights Unit for Aid in Winning Clark's Attention" (p. 1), "Measure Raps Any Anti-Hate Material. N.Y. Solon Notes Bigotry Aids Enemies" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 1 (January 1, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-1)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 1 (January 1, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-1)
"Legislature Will Weigh Proposal to End Bias in Employment" (p. 1), "Ex-OWI Aide Cites Losses of Evacuees" (p. 1), "Where Should Nisei Settle Down? Wherever He is Happy, Writer Thinks" (p. 2), "Nisei Hoopsters Start '47 Season Jan. 8" (p. 3).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 4 (January 14, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-3)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 4 (January 14, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-3)
"Sees Complications in Return of Nisei Stranded in Japan" (p. 1), "Anti-Bias Group Eyes Removal of Race Restrictions" (p. 1), "Aliens Now May Apply for Business" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 2 (January 5, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-169)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 2 (January 5, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-169)
"Truman Shows Interest in Rights Bill" (p. 1), "Pa. Solon Vows to Present Measure for Equality in Naturalization" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 88 (October 23, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-150)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 88 (October 23, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-150)
"Ban Prohibiting Oriental Citizens in Hawaii to Enter U.S. Lifted" (p. 1), "Mimbu, Sakahara to Speak on Problems Relating to Claims Forms on Oct. 27" (p. 1)
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 29 (April 9, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-196)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 29 (April 9, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-196)
"Issei, Nisei May Get Claims Forms for Lost or Damaged Articles" (p. 1), "Bill Gives Atty. - Gen More Power" (p. 1), "Shaft Honors War Dead of This Area" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 82 (October 2, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-144)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 82 (October 2, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-144)
"Renunciants Will Receive Rights in "49" (pg. 1), "JACL's Aides, Ennis to Sift Claims Method" (pg. 1)
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