Segregation and Tule Lake

In July 1943, Tule Lake concentration camp was designated as a segregation center for those the camp authorities considered "disloyal" as a result of their answers on the mandatory "loyalty questionnaire." In September 1943, "loyal" Japanese Americans from Tule Lake began departing for other camps and "disloyal" Japanese Americans from other camps started arriving at Tule Lake. The number of guards increased from a few hundred to 930 and an eight-foot high double fence was erected. The camp's capacity was 15,000 but the peak population reached 18,789 as 6,249 original "loyal" Japaense Americans chose to stay rather than be uprooted again.

World War II (54)
Resistance and dissidence (50)
Segregation and Tule Lake (206)

206 items
[Ray R. Best had close call with detention camp mob], biographical news article on Tule Lake Camp Director Raymond Best (ddr-csujad-2-39)
doc [Ray R. Best had close call with detention camp mob], biographical news article on Tule Lake Camp Director Raymond Best (ddr-csujad-2-39)
Biographical newspaper article about Tule Lake Camp Director Raymond R. Best and his role during the November 1943 protests at the camp, lead to martial law. Describes how his life was in danger during the protests and his diplomatic work after the camp closed. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project ...
Letter from residents requesting prisoner release, February 18, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-8)
doc Letter from residents requesting prisoner release, February 18, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-8)
Letter from residents requesting the release of two incarerees: Wataru Obara, and Hiroichi Shimamura, detained in army stockades at Tule Lake Camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0008
Translation of poster at Tule Lake Camp regarding repatriation and loyalty to Japan (ddr-csujad-2-43)
doc Translation of poster at Tule Lake Camp regarding repatriation and loyalty to Japan (ddr-csujad-2-43)
Translation of a poster within washrooms at the Tule Lake Incarceration Camp. Describes inadequate treatment of incarcerees compared to other camps, loyalty and repatriation to Japan, and the need to quell "disgraceful behavior" such as violence. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0043
[Minutes of the regular joint meeting of the advisory council and the Co-ordinating committee of the Tule Lake Center, March 3, 1944] (ddr-csujad-2-30)
doc [Minutes of the regular joint meeting of the advisory council and the Co-ordinating committee of the Tule Lake Center, March 3, 1944] (ddr-csujad-2-30)
Meeting minutes between incarceree-led Tule Lake Camp government and the Advisory Council. Includes discussion on prisoner release from army stockades, the creation of a Young Men's Association and the transfer of incarcerees from Poston Camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0030
[Interview Minutes with D.S. Myer, WRA National Director, March 18, 1944] (ddr-csujad-2-21)
doc [Interview Minutes with D.S. Myer, WRA National Director, March 18, 1944] (ddr-csujad-2-21)
Meeting minutes between incarceree-led Tule Lake Camp government and War Relocation Authority Director D.S. [Dillon Seymour] Myer. Question-answer session between Co-ordinating Committee and Myer. Includes questions about legitimacy and self-governance of Co-ordinating Committee, concerns about camp food, employment, and martial law in the camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project ...
[Revolt at Tule Lake: Crop workers blamed for riots; Honolulu Japanese led the mob, 1943-11-04] (ddr-csujad-2-41)
doc [Revolt at Tule Lake: Crop workers blamed for riots; Honolulu Japanese led the mob, 1943-11-04] (ddr-csujad-2-41)
Newspaper article about protests at Tule Lake Camp in November, 1943 which led to martial law being in place for three months. Article describes camp administration refusing to listen to incarceree demands and violence against staff. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0041
Tule Lake Co-ordinating committee notes (ddr-csujad-2-27)
doc Tule Lake Co-ordinating committee notes (ddr-csujad-2-27)
Meeting notes of incarceree led Tule Lake Camp government. Describes a desire to "return to normalcy" after unrest in camp including various publications, vandalism, the arrival of Manzanar transfers, lack of employment, and no prisoners being released for three weeks from the army stockades. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project ...
Co-ordinating Committee meeting notes, March 9, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-1)
doc Co-ordinating Committee meeting notes, March 9, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-1)
Memoranda from incarceree-lead government within the camp. Includes requests for the immediate release of 14 prisoners from the military stockades. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0001
Tule Lake Center Diary, February 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-29)
doc Tule Lake Center Diary, February 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-29)
Daily diary for March, written by Co-ordinating Committee Secretary Byron Akitsuki at Tule Lake Camp. Primarily describes various unrest and incidents in different blocks, especially Ward 6. Also includes memos and messages sent, release of prisoners from army stockades, and committee member meetings. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ...
Letter from Mrs. Sakazaki to Raymond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp (ddr-csujad-2-12)
doc Letter from Mrs. Sakazaki to Raymond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp (ddr-csujad-2-12)
Letter from Mrs. Sakazaki to Raymond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp, requesting for the release of her husband, Tokuraro Sakazaki ,from the army stockades at Tule Lake Camp. Includes her letter in Japanese and notes about her interpreter and situation. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0012
[Call troops in new outbreak], newspaper article on Tule Lake protests, November 5, 1943 (ddr-csujad-2-37)
doc [Call troops in new outbreak], newspaper article on Tule Lake protests, November 5, 1943 (ddr-csujad-2-37)
Newspaper article about protests at Tule Lake Camp in November, 1943 which led to martial law being in place for three months. Describes thousands of incarcerees protesting and the US army sent in for assistance. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0037
Letter from Evacuee Police to Raymond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp, February 1, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-13)
doc Letter from Evacuee Police to Raymond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp, February 1, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-13)
Letter from Evacuee Police Force to Raymond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp, requesting the release of Hiroyoshi Tsuda from the army stockades at Tule Lake Camp. Signed names: Kataoka, H.; Okusako, Thomas; Ogata, Roy K.; Miyamoto, H.; Tanaka, K.; Haruyama, N.; Yoshida, Maeko; Hanagata, Ken; Ayabe, Toshi S.; Ono, I; Kanno, Thomas K.; Sato, R.; ...
Letter from residents of Block 9 to Raymond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp and Colonel Verne Austin, Commander of Military Police, February 14, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-7)
doc Letter from residents of Block 9 to Raymond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp and Colonel Verne Austin, Commander of Military Police, February 14, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-7)
Letter from residents of Block 9 to Raymond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp and Colonel Verne Austin, Commander of Military Police requesting the release of four incarerees detained in the army stockades at Tule Lake Camp: Dentaro Tani, Heizaburo Nakada, Goichi Ishimaru, and Toshiaki Oku. Signed names: Tani, Dentaro; Nakada, Heizaburo; Ishimaru, Goichi; Oku, Toshiaki; ...
George Okada interview (ddr-csujad-6-28)
doc George Okada interview (ddr-csujad-6-28)
Oral history interview with George Okada. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: SCRC_OKADA_GEORGE
Subject: separation of evacuees of doubtful loyalty from loyal evacuees [policy memo by Dillon S. Myer] (ddr-csujad-19-1)
doc Subject: separation of evacuees of doubtful loyalty from loyal evacuees [policy memo by Dillon S. Myer] (ddr-csujad-19-1)
Details the War Relocation Authority's policy to remove to a separate facility "those persons of Japanese ancestry residing in relocation centers who by their acts have indicated that their loyalties lie with Japan during the present hostilities." Along with Policy, headings include Designation of Center for Evacuees of Doubtful Loyalty, referring to Tule Lake; Persons to ...
Letter from Michi Weglyn to Frank Chin, May 31, 1993 (ddr-csujad-24-94)
doc Letter from Michi Weglyn to Frank Chin, May 31, 1993 (ddr-csujad-24-94)
A letter from Michi Weglyn to Frank Chin. Also included is a letter to Weglyn and a letter written by Eji Suyama to Pacific Citizen about Japanese American draft resisters during World War II. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: chi_07_011
Letter from Aiko Takaoka to Ramond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp, February 1, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-5)
doc Letter from Aiko Takaoka to Ramond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp, February 1, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-5)
Letter from Aiko Takaoka to Raymond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp, requesting the release of her brother, Yoshio Takaoka from the army stockades at Tule Lake Camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0005
Letter from incarcerees requesting release of prisoners, April 17, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-14)
doc Letter from incarcerees requesting release of prisoners, April 17, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-14)
Letter from incarcerees requesting the release of 21 inmates from the army stockades at Tule Lake Camp. Names: Kazama, Masami; Shimada, Shunichi; Harauchi, Akio; Kusuda, Masanao; Gushiken, Yoshitsune; Gushiken, Yoshio; Matsumoto, Mitsuru; Matsumoto, Tsuneto; Masuoka, Hiro; Tarumoto, Sadaichi; Obara, Wataru; Shimamura, Hiroichi; Fujii, Yoshio; Aoki, Jin; Kurashige, Kenichi; Okata, Masanao; Nakahara, Tokushige; Morikawa, Masao; Morikawa, Shigeto; ...
[Report of the informal interview of the divisional responsible men and the detained stockade internees] (ddr-csujad-2-53)
doc [Report of the informal interview of the divisional responsible men and the detained stockade internees] (ddr-csujad-2-53)
Report from the incarceree-led government at Tule Lake Incarceration Camp. A transcript from an interview of the "Divisional Responsible Men" and their attempts to challenge the status-quo in the camp. Discusses hunger strike due to the army stealing incarceree items and attempts to release prisoners from the army stockades at the camp. See this object in ...
[Minutes of the regular meeting of the divisional responsible men and the Co-ordinating committee of the Tule Lake Center, March 11, 1944] (ddr-csujad-2-23)
doc [Minutes of the regular meeting of the divisional responsible men and the Co-ordinating committee of the Tule Lake Center, March 11, 1944] (ddr-csujad-2-23)
Meeting minutes of incarceree-led Tule Lake Camp government. Describes clean-up week at the camp, prisoner release, vandalism, construction, clothing and furniture, and reorganization of committee. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0023
[Minutes of the special meeting of the divisional heads of the Tule Lake Center, January 22, 1944] (ddr-csujad-2-16)
doc [Minutes of the special meeting of the divisional heads of the Tule Lake Center, January 22, 1944] (ddr-csujad-2-16)
Minutes of divisional heads of the Tule Lake Center. Describes formal recognition of Co-ordinating committee by Camp Director Raymond Best and Military Police Commander Colonel Verne Austin, release 26 prisoners from army stockades, and details of employment and work opportunities. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0016
[Troops alert as Tule Japs defy Colonel], newspaper article on Tule Lake protests, November 13, 1943 (ddr-csujad-2-40)
doc [Troops alert as Tule Japs defy Colonel], newspaper article on Tule Lake protests, November 13, 1943 (ddr-csujad-2-40)
Newspaper article about protests at Tule Lake Camp in November, 1943 which led to martial law being in place for three months. Article describes Colonel Verne Austin, Commander of Military Police, trying to regain control after the protests. He is quoted as saying "Henceforth the Army, and not trouble making Jap 'committees' will dictate camp life." ...
[Informal meeting of the divisional responsible men and the project director and Colonel Austin, January 17,1944] (ddr-csujad-2-17)
doc [Informal meeting of the divisional responsible men and the project director and Colonel Austin, January 17,1944] (ddr-csujad-2-17)
Minutes of informal meeting between Tule Lake Camp Director Raymond Best and Military Police Commander Colonel Verne Austin and incarceree-led Tule Lake Camp Government. Describes theft incidents from the Army's search of barracks by the soldiers and release of detained prisoners from the army stockades. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization ...
Tule Lake Center Diary, March 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-25)
doc Tule Lake Center Diary, March 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-25)
Daily diary for March, possibly written by Co-ordinating committee Secretary Byron Akitsuki at Tule Lake Camp. Describes unrest in Block 21, memos and messages sent, and committee member meetings. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0025
[WRA deny Japanese in riot], newspaper article on Tule Lake protests, November 3, 1943 (ddr-csujad-2-38)
doc [WRA deny Japanese in riot], newspaper article on Tule Lake protests, November 3, 1943 (ddr-csujad-2-38)
Newspaper article about protests at Tule Lake Camp in November, 1943 which led to martial law being in place for three months. Describes violence among incarcerees. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0038
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