"Voluntary evacuation"

For a three-week period during World War II, after Japanese Americans had been excluded from the West Coast but before plans for concentration camps had been finalized, a period of "voluntary evacuation" took place. Government officials hoped that the Japanese Americans barred from keeping their homes on the West Coast would make arrangements to move inland on their own, saving valuable military resources. However, state government officials and residents of neighboring states reacted with outrage that Japanese Americans were being encouraged to move there. Most Japanese Americans feared moving into such hostile territory where they would know no one. Further, few Japanese Americans had the resources to move their families to a new place. In total, 4,889 Japanese Americans left the West Coast "voluntarily" and moved to the interior of the U.S. during that period.

World War II (13)
Non-incarcerated Japanese Americans (1)
"Voluntary evacuation" (39)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Voluntary evacuation

39 items
Zen Shibayama Interview Segment 4 (ddr-densho-1001-15-4)
vh Zen Shibayama Interview Segment 4 (ddr-densho-1001-15-4)
Family's decision to move inland rather than be removed to camp
George Koshi Segment 6 (ddr-densho-1008-1-6)
vh George Koshi Segment 6 (ddr-densho-1008-1-6)
The bombing of Pearl Harbor: "What a stupid act on the part of Japan"to Denver

Members of the National Japanese American Historical Society (NJAHS) arranged for and conducted this interview in conjunction with Densho.

Bill Nishimura Interview Segment 4 (ddr-densho-1000-119-4)
vh Bill Nishimura Interview Segment 4 (ddr-densho-1000-119-4)
Family undertakes "voluntary evacuation" to Visalia, California

This interview took place at the 2000 Tule Lake Pilgrimage in Klamath Falls, Oregon.

Junkoh Harui Segment 11 (ddr-densho-1000-11-11)
vh Junkoh Harui Segment 11 (ddr-densho-1000-11-11)
An eight-year-old's confusion after the bombing of Pearl Harbor

This interview was done outdoors in the Bainbridge Gardens Nursery which resulted in increased background noise and frequent interruptions by the business P.A. system.

Frank Konishi Interview Segment 15 (ddr-manz-1-25-15)
vh Frank Konishi Interview Segment 15 (ddr-manz-1-25-15)
Employing Japanese families who had "voluntarily relocated" from the West Coast
Natsuko Hashitani Interview Segment 7 (ddr-one-7-42-7)
vh Natsuko Hashitani Interview Segment 7 (ddr-one-7-42-7)
Moving east to avoid mass removal

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the Interior.

Lily C. Hioki Interview Segment 12 (ddr-jamsj-2-10-12)
vh Lily C. Hioki Interview Segment 12 (ddr-jamsj-2-10-12)
Parents decide to join a caravan to "voluntarily evacuate" after the bombing of Pearl Harbor
Bessie Yoshida Konishi Interview Segment 10 (ddr-densho-1000-212-10)
vh Bessie Yoshida Konishi Interview Segment 10 (ddr-densho-1000-212-10)
Memories of atmosphere following the bombing of Pearl Harbor: father sponsored people from the West Coast moving to Colorado
Junkoh Harui Segment 13 (ddr-densho-1000-11-13)
vh Junkoh Harui Segment 13 (ddr-densho-1000-11-13)
Negative memories of Moses Lake, Washington: being under "surveillance," memories of getting beat up every day for a month in grade school

This interview was done outdoors in the Bainbridge Gardens Nursery which resulted in increased background noise and frequent interruptions by the business P.A. system.

Fred Shiosaki Interview Segment 14 (ddr-densho-1000-190-14)
vh Fred Shiosaki Interview Segment 14 (ddr-densho-1000-190-14)
Changes in Spokane's Japanese American community with the influx of "voluntary evacuees"

This interview was conducted as part of a project to capture stories of the Japanese American community of Spokane, Washington. Densho worked in collaboration with the Northwest Museum of Arts and Culture.

Joseph Norio Uemura Interview Segment 21 (ddr-densho-1014-3-21)
vh Joseph Norio Uemura Interview Segment 21 (ddr-densho-1014-3-21)
Helping Japanese Americans from the West Coast who "voluntarily evacuated" to the U.S. interior
James Sakamoto Interview Segment 7 (ddr-jamsj-2-1-7)
vh James Sakamoto Interview Segment 7 (ddr-jamsj-2-1-7)
Moving to Stockton, California, in an attempt to avoid mass removal

This interview was conducted by the Japanese American Museum of San Jose, and is part of a project entitled "Lasting Stories: The Resettlement of San Jose Japantown," a collaborative project between the Japanese American Museum of San Jose and Densho.

Harry K. Yoshikawa Interview Segment 12 (ddr-densho-1000-278-12)
vh Harry K. Yoshikawa Interview Segment 12 (ddr-densho-1000-278-12)
Leaving Los Angeles for Colorado

Due to technical difficulties during the taping of this interview, the interviewer's voice is considerably louder than the narrator's. This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material ...

Tak Yamashita Interview Segment 25 (ddr-densho-1000-365-25)
vh Tak Yamashita Interview Segment 25 (ddr-densho-1000-365-25)
"Voluntary evacuation" to Colorado

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the Interior.

Asano Terao Interview II Segment 5 (ddr-densho-1000-109-5)
vh Asano Terao Interview II Segment 5 (ddr-densho-1000-109-5)
Traveling to Salt Lake City, Utah (Japanese language)

This interview was conducted in Japanese and was translated so as to convey Mrs. Terao's way of speaking as closely as possible. For example, there are instances in which she makes some grammatical errors. These mistakes are conveyed through similar grammatical errors in English in order to ...

Issei farmer discussing lease with Chinese businessman (ddr-densho-151-285)
img Issei farmer discussing lease with Chinese businessman (ddr-densho-151-285)
Original caption: Hayward, California. Negi family, operators of a forty-acre leased truck farm, complete arrangements with a Chinese business man who is taking over this farm and equipment at the time of the family's voluntary evacuation to Colorado, prior to Civilian Exclusion Orders.
George Yano Interview Segment 10 (ddr-jamsj-2-11-10)
vh George Yano Interview Segment 10 (ddr-jamsj-2-11-10)
Family organizes a car caravan of families to "voluntarily evacuate" to Colorado
Nobu Suzuki Interview I Segment 23 (ddr-densho-1000-84-23)
vh Nobu Suzuki Interview I Segment 23 (ddr-densho-1000-84-23)
Working for the War Relocation Authority, helping people move before the mass removal: $50 for train fare to "wherever"

References are made to several of Nobu Suzuki's personal papers, which are currently available for public perusal at the University of Washington's Manuscripts and University Archives.

Sam Araki Interview Segment 5 (ddr-densho-1000-402-5)
vh Sam Araki Interview Segment 5 (ddr-densho-1000-402-5)
Hearing that the FBI was after him, Father decides to move the family inland

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the ...

Seiko Edamatsu Interview Segment 16 (ddr-densho-1000-195-16)
vh Seiko Edamatsu Interview Segment 16 (ddr-densho-1000-195-16)
Voluntarily moving to Spokane, Washington, prior to mass removal

This interview was conducted as part of a project to capture stories of the Japanese American community of Spokane, Washington. Densho worked in collaboration with the Northwest Museum of Arts and Culture.

Floyd Schmoe Interview I Segment 3 (ddr-densho-1000-83-3)
vh Floyd Schmoe Interview I Segment 3 (ddr-densho-1000-83-3)
Finding inland universities willing to accept Japanese American students at the beginning of World War II

In this interview Mr. Schmoe refers to Aki Kurose, a former employee, fellow Quaker, peace activist, and long-time friend. At the time of this interview, Ms. Kurose had recently passed away after a long struggle with cancer. At the time ...

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