Agriculture

Many Issei (first-generation Japanese immigrants) began as sharecroppers. Others sought to buy land, but the Issei had to overcome obstacles preventing them from competing with white farmers. California and other states passed alien land laws prohibiting Asian immigrants from purchasing or leasing agricultural land. There were ways around the discriminatory laws: an Issei father could put the property in the name of his American-born child, or issei could form corporations in which a majority of the shareholders were American citizens. Despite the alien land laws, Issei farmers played a significant role in West Coast agriculture. In the years just prior to World War II, Japanese American families grew 35 percent of the produce in California. By the 1920s, Japanese Americans supplied 75 percent of the produce and half the milk to the Puget Sound region.

Industry and employment (435)
Agriculture (693)

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Seabrook Farms

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693 items
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 15 (April 9, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-15)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 15 (April 9, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-15)
Selected article titles: "Brown Supports Braoder Voter Rights Measures" (p.1), Evacuation Would Be Invalid under Present Court: Kido" (p.1), "U.S. Growers Must Compete for Domestic Workers, Says Wirtz" (p.1), "History Project: Boom and Bust of Berry Growers" (p.1-2), "What's Wrong with Anti-Poverty Program-House Task Force to Seek Answers" (p.3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 22 (May 28, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-22)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 22 (May 28, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-22)
Selected article titles: "History Project: Nisei Homesteads near Heart Mountain" (p.1), "Calif. FEPC Budget Slashed, Housing Program in Danger" (p.1), "Author Michener says 'Hawaii Way Ahead' in Civil Rights Fight, Might Return to Isles" (p.1), "Immigration Bill Timetable" (p.2), "Utah Opens Own Rights Commission" (p.3), "'Myakawa Rd.' in Houston Linked to Ill-Fated Rice-Growing PRoject Originator in …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 61, No. 22 (November 26, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-48)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 61, No. 22 (November 26, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-48)
Selected article titles: "Rights Commission Calls for New Laws, Better Enforcement" (p.1, 4), "Integration Speed-Up Urged at Planning Session on Civil Rights" (p.1-2), "Signing of New Immigration Bill Still no Help to Canadian Nisei of St. Louis" (p.1), "Old Virtues Fall into Disuse" (p.2), "Issei Came when Water Was Plentiful, Nisei Today Face Water Shortage but …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 12 (March 19, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-12)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 12 (March 19, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-12)
Selected article titles: "Washington State Legislators Order Land Law Repeal for '66" (p.1), "Non-Japanese Who Contributed to Nisei Community Due Awards" (p.1), "California Seeks 5,100 Mexican Farm Workers" (p.1, 3), "Shame of Selma" (p.2).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 58, No. 16 (October 18, 1963) (ddr-pc-35-42)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 58, No. 16 (October 18, 1963) (ddr-pc-35-42)
Selected article titles: "U.S. Population Data on Japanese Revealed" (p. 1), "Japan's Postwar Constitution Hailed as 'Highly Workable' by Nisei Scholar" (pp. 1-2), "Hayasaka Keeps Busy Explaining Seattle Open-Housing Ordinance" (pp. 1-2), and "Task of Introducing Sugar Cane in Persian Area Described as Similar to Imperial Valley Falls upon Shoulder of Nisei" (p. 4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 18 (April 30, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-18)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 18 (April 30, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-18)
Selected article titles: "Wirtz Approves Use of Foreign Farm Workers" (p.1, 3), "Inouye Sponsors Bill Dealing with Migratory Labor" (p.1), "History Project: Issei Developed Famous Utah Celery" (p.2), "Nisei Criticizes President's New Farm Bill" (p.3), "Project to House Migrant Farm Laborers under Anti-Poverty Program Stalled" (p.3), "Vice President Humphrey Urges Labor to Assist Minority Citizens to …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 2 (January 8, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-2)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 2 (January 8, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-2)
Selected article titles: "Prop. 14 Upheld in First Test at Orange County" (p.1), "President Johnson Outlines His Thoughts of Great Society" (p.1-2), "California Braceros No More-Growers Uncertain about Future" (p.1), "San Francisco Main Port for Issei Emigres" (p.3), "Preparation Needed to Cope with Japanese Visitors to Hawaii" (p.3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 3 (January 15, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-3)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 3 (January 15, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-3)
Selected article titles: "Another Angle Proposed to Eliminate Alien Land Law" (p.1), "Texas Issei Pioneers in Farming Had Little Thought of 'Hiki-Age'" (p.1-2, 4), "Japanese Supplemental Farm Workers Program in California Jeopardized by Latest U.S. Labor Dept. Rule to Remove Braceros" (p.1), "Los Angeles Area Oriental Groups Form Council" (p.3-4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 9 (February 26, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-9)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 9 (February 26, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-9)
Selected article titles: "History Project Drafting Plans of Nisei Survey" (p.1), "JACL to Seek Help for 'Tanno' on Humanitarian Principle" (p.1), "Prop. 14-type Threat Cited as Colorado Houses [sic] Passes Stronger Fair Housing Bill" (p.1), "In Memoriam: Larry Tajiri" (p.2), "History Project Uncovers 'Depressed Area' among Japanese Pear Orchardists in Placer County; Okei Grave Beautification Urged" …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 21 (November 18, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-45)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 21 (November 18, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-45)
Selected article titles: "Supreme Court: Rights of Alien to Be Police Argued, Other Major Cases on Aliens Still Pending" (p.1), "Seattle JACLer in Prominent Role at National Women's Conference" (p.1), "Carter Team Lashed for Shunning the Nikkei" (p.1, 9), "Reparations? No!" (p.4), "Evacuees from Peru" (p.5), "Calif. Agriculture and the Nikkei" (p.7), "A Third Position Presented …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 84, No. 10 (March 18, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-10)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 84, No. 10 (March 18, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-10)
Selected article titles: "JACL Panel Stresses Bilingual Programs in School Integration" (p.1), "HEW, Labor Cabinet Heads Assure Affirmative Action" (p.1), "Nat't JACL Director Selection Process" (p.2), "Two Ariyoshi Bills to Stem Flow of Newcomers" (p.2, 10", "Drought Affects Nisei Farms" (p.6), "Filial Piety in Sansei" (p.7).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 84, No. 9 (March 11, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-9)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 84, No. 9 (March 11, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-9)
Selected article titles: "Farm Leader Harry Kubo to Address Tri-District" (p.1-2), "NIMH Director Cites Issues Facing JACL" (p.1), "TV Newsman Carried Pardon Banner Since '68" (p.1-2), "Intermountain Feedback on Reparations Sought" (p.2, 4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 23 (December 2, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-47)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 23 (December 2, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-47)
Selected article titles: "Supreme Court Refuses Appeal from Young-Chin" (p.1), "Nisei Growers/Pickers in Wage Row" (p.1, 5), "Schools Built by Evacuees at Poston I and II to Be Razed" (p.1), "When Sachio Left Town, Even the Cows Were Blue" (p.3), "Anti-Minority Backlash" (p.4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 22 (November 25, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-46)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 22 (November 25, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-46)
Selected article titles: "Dr. Tom Yatabe, 80: 'Granddaddy of JACL" (p.1, 3), "NC-WNDC Reparation Survey: Only 5% Opposition" (p.1), "Cathy: Help for the Homeless" (p.1-2).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 84, No. 13 (April 8, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-13)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 84, No. 13 (April 8, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-13)
Selected article titles: "1400 Nikkei Turnout for Hayakawa" (p.1), "East Coast Nikkei Less Inclined for Individual Reparation Pay" (p.1), "The Great Drought of '77" (p.3), "The Intermarriage Question" (p.5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 13 (September 23, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-37)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 13 (September 23, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-37)
Selected article titles: "JACL and CIC Testify for Evacuee Credit" (p.1), "JACL Looks at U.S.-Japan Friendship Act" (p.1), "EXECOM Actions Colored 'Gravenstein'" (p.1-2), "Ethnic Past's Preservation Is State's Aim" (p.2), "Reparations Survey Underway" (p.3), "YPCC Reunion-Every 50 Years" (p.4), "No 'Farewell to Manzanar'" (p.8).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 110, No. 4 (February 2, 1990) (ddr-pc-62-4)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 110, No. 4 (February 2, 1990) (ddr-pc-62-4)
Select article titles: "Chinese Immigration Relief Act Veto Sustained; Bush's Executive Order Rules"(p.1); "Study of JACL's Actions During WWII Due for April Presentation"(p.1); "Sen Nishiyama Compares Heritage and Human Rights in U.S.-Japan Relations at Selanoco Fete"(p.3); "Issei History of U.S. in Agriculture"(p.6).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 110, No. 6 (February 16, 1990) (ddr-pc-62-6)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 110, No. 6 (February 16, 1990) (ddr-pc-62-6)
Select article titles: "NBC Sportscaster Apologizes for Racial Slurs in S.F. Talk Show"(p.1);"Spokane Spokesman Review, Nikkei Elders to Be Honored; Nakagawa, Ujifusa to Speak"(p.1);"Hate Crimes Stats Bill Passes Senate"(p.3); "Texas Issei Farms in Rio Grande Valley Succeed Except the 'Yamato Colony'"(p.5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 48, No. 3 (January 16, 1959) (ddr-pc-31-3)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 48, No. 3 (January 16, 1959) (ddr-pc-31-3)
Selected article titles: "Racial Relocation to ease tension?" (p. 1), "Anti-Nisei housing bias mooted by Utah civil righters" (p. 1), "50 of Calif.'s 80 Assemblymen Co-Author FEPC" (p. 1), "Univ. of Chicago Issei artist retires after 50-year association with college" (p. 1), "Columnist in L.A. Times comments on evacuation, hopes Sansei have as much diligence for …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 54, No. 22 (June 1, 1962) (ddr-pc-34-22)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 54, No. 22 (June 1, 1962) (ddr-pc-34-22)
Selected article titles: "Congressional Help Being Considered for Evacuee Tax Probe" (p.1), "'Varsity Victory Volunteers' Remembered as U. of Hawaii's Contribution to War Effort" (p.1), "California-Trained Farmers Make Good" (p.2), "Juvenile Delinquency Costs U.S. Taxpayers $4,000 a Year to Keep Youngster in State School-Twice Tuition to First-Rate Prep School" (p.3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 50, No. 19 (May 6, 1960) (ddr-pc-32-19)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 50, No. 19 (May 6, 1960) (ddr-pc-32-19)
Select article titles: "Farm Co-Op Manager Nominated for 'Nisei of Biennium' Award" (p.1); "Law Enforcement groups balk at Cal. FEP's suggested guide to prehiring questions" (p.1)
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 54, No. 21 (May 25, 1962) (ddr-pc-34-21)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 54, No. 21 (May 25, 1962) (ddr-pc-34-21)
Selected article titles: "Chuman Admonishes PSW Chapters" (p.1, 4), "Nisei Organized Firm Quoted Daily on Over Counter List" (p.1), "Housing Bias Report on Berkeley Due" (p.1), "Dr. Ogura Develops Substitute Larynx for Dog in Step to Aid Throat Cancer Victims" (p.2), "College Essay on Resettlement Patterns of Evacuees Wins Top Michigan Award" (p.2), "California Farmers Threatened …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 54, No. 11 (March 16, 1962) (ddr-pc-34-11)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 54, No. 11 (March 16, 1962) (ddr-pc-34-11)
Selected article titles: "Wing Luke Elected to Seattle Council" (p.1), "Congressional Boxscore" (p.1), "Oregon Orchardists Give Nisei Most Votes for Top Office" (p.1), "President Kennedy Urged to Restore Vested Property to Free Holdings Oversea" (p.2), "Congressional Record Publicizes Story of Konishi Family of Platteville, Colo., and His 'Company' of 13 Children" (p.3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 77, No. 12, (September 21, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-37)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 77, No. 12, (September 21, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-37)
Select article titles: "50th Anniversary JACL's Oldest Chapter to Honor Hirasuna" (p.1); "Asian Americans Surpass Nat'l Average: Census" (p.1); "Nisei Farmers Form Patrols to Protect Raisins" (p.1); "Hakujin Comic Mistakes Nisei for Native from Japan" (p.2); "Japan Embassy Accepts Denial of FBI Break-in" (p.3); "Japanese Classes Underway at S.F. Grade, Jr. Highs" (p.6).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 76, No. 23, (June 15, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-23)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 76, No. 23, (June 15, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-23)
Select article titles: "New York Nikkei Groups Form Housing Corp" (p.1); "WRA Records to Be Retained in Nat'l Archives" (p.1); "Evacuee Teacher Bill Passes First Step in Sac'to" (p.1); "Bannai Bandwagon Rolls" (p.2); "U.S. Civil Rights Commission to Hear Problems of Calif. Asian American" (p.3); "Nisei Farmers League Defending Right of Farm Workers and Protecting Farms" …
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