Agriculture

Many Issei (first-generation Japanese immigrants) began as sharecroppers. Others sought to buy land, but the Issei had to overcome obstacles preventing them from competing with white farmers. California and other states passed alien land laws prohibiting Asian immigrants from purchasing or leasing agricultural land. There were ways around the discriminatory laws: an Issei father could put the property in the name of his American-born child, or issei could form corporations in which a majority of the shareholders were American citizens. Despite the alien land laws, Issei farmers played a significant role in West Coast agriculture. In the years just prior to World War II, Japanese American families grew 35 percent of the produce in California. By the 1920s, Japanese Americans supplied 75 percent of the produce and half the milk to the Puget Sound region.

Industry and employment (392)
Agriculture (594)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Seabrook Farms

594 items
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 75, No. 6 (August 11, 1972) (ddr-pc-44-31)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 75, No. 6 (August 11, 1972) (ddr-pc-44-31)
Selected article titles: "Seabrook Farms Eye Japanese Industries" (p.1), "Plight of Issei Living Below Poverty Level Raises Questions" (p.1), "San Francisco Community Group Toiling to Revitalize: (p.1).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 76, No. 22, (June 8, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-22)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 76, No. 22, (June 8, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-22)
Select article titles: "San Mateo City Council Anti-Nikkei Bias Festering" (p.1); "Aged Issei Seen as Target of Pressure from Nikkei Groups, Says Utah Savant" (p.1); "Bannai Looms as First Nisei to Sit in Assembly" (p.1); "Jobless Sac'to Asian Teachers Protest Hawaii Recruitment"(p.3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 77, No. 12, (September 21, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-37)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 77, No. 12, (September 21, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-37)
Select article titles: "50th Anniversary JACL's Oldest Chapter to Honor Hirasuna" (p.1); "Asian Americans Surpass Nat'l Average: Census" (p.1); "Nisei Farmers Form Patrols to Protect Raisins" (p.1); "Hakujin Comic Mistakes Nisei for Native from Japan" (p.2); "Japan Embassy Accepts Denial of FBI Break-in" (p.3); "Japanese Classes Underway at S.F. Grade, Jr. Highs" (p.6).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 76, No. 23, (June 15, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-23)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 76, No. 23, (June 15, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-23)
Select article titles: "New York Nikkei Groups Form Housing Corp" (p.1); "WRA Records to Be Retained in Nat'l Archives" (p.1); "Evacuee Teacher Bill Passes First Step in Sac'to" (p.1); "Bannai Bandwagon Rolls" (p.2); "U.S. Civil Rights Commission to Hear Problems of Calif. Asian American" (p.3); "Nisei Farmers League Defending Right of Farm Workers and Protecting Farms" …
Japanese countryside (ddr-densho-397-158)
img Japanese countryside (ddr-densho-397-158)
The caption in the photo album reads "Countryside Sendai". A tilled field near Sendai on the northern portion of Honshu island. Takashi Matsui was stationed in Japan with the U.S. military during the Allied occupation of Japan after the end of World War II.
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 45, No. 2 (July 12, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-28)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 45, No. 2 (July 12, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-28)
Select article titles: "House group recommends temp'y farm labor plan be continued: 'No ill effects' on domestic labor market recorded" (p. 1); "JACL Campaign Against Anti-Nisei Films on TV Circularized by NARBT" (p. 1); "Small Claims Court Hears Civil Right Cases" (p. 1); "$86,550 damage suit filed in traffic death of Sakamoto" (p. 1); "Mr. Moto, …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 44, No. 18 (May 3, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-18)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 44, No. 18 (May 3, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-18)
Select article titles: "Congressional hearings end on use of temporary Japanese farm labor" (p. 1); "Congressmen to support JACL Nat'l TV protest" (p. 1); "Active Chicagoan Mike Hagiwara dies unexpectedly" (p. 1); "Denver TV stations promis no showing of anti-Nisei films" (p. 1); "Parents of grade school pupils urged to protest use of 'Firelight Reader'" (p. …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 54, No. 11 (March 16, 1962) (ddr-pc-34-11)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 54, No. 11 (March 16, 1962) (ddr-pc-34-11)
Selected article titles: "Wing Luke Elected to Seattle Council" (p.1), "Congressional Boxscore" (p.1), "Oregon Orchardists Give Nisei Most Votes for Top Office" (p.1), "President Kennedy Urged to Restore Vested Property to Free Holdings Oversea" (p.2), "Congressional Record Publicizes Story of Konishi Family of Platteville, Colo., and His 'Company' of 13 Children" (p.3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 58, No. 16 (October 18, 1963) (ddr-pc-35-42)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 58, No. 16 (October 18, 1963) (ddr-pc-35-42)
Selected article titles: "U.S. Population Data on Japanese Revealed" (p. 1), "Japan's Postwar Constitution Hailed as 'Highly Workable' by Nisei Scholar" (pp. 1-2), "Hayasaka Keeps Busy Explaining Seattle Open-Housing Ordinance" (pp. 1-2), and "Task of Introducing Sugar Cane in Persian Area Described as Similar to Imperial Valley Falls upon Shoulder of Nisei" (p. 4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 58, Vol. 8 (February 21, 1964) (ddr-pc-36-8)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 58, Vol. 8 (February 21, 1964) (ddr-pc-36-8)
Selected article titles: "Growers Council to Recruit Domestic Hands for Bracero" (p.1); "Federal Aid in Housing Periled by Initiative" (p.1), "Tacoma Voters Reject Housing Ordinance" (p.1), "Cortez JACL Planning Community Center" (p.1), "Civil Rights Act" (p.2), "City Hall Approves Li'l Tokio Rebuilding" (p.3), "Once a North Dakota Homesteader, Kitagawa Now a Spry 88" (p.4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 59, Vol. 21 (November 20, 1964) (ddr-pc-36-47)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 59, Vol. 21 (November 20, 1964) (ddr-pc-36-47)
Selected article titles: "Seattle Sansei Freed on Bail in Mississippi" (p.1-2), "Japanese Language Project" (p.1-2), "ACLU Supports NAACP Suit to Void Prop. 14" (p.1), "When Bracero Program Ends, Call Retained Mexican Workers 'Primo'" (p1, 3), "'Inclusion' of Negro Jurors if Deliberate Held as Unconstitutional as 'Exclusion'" (p.3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 59, Vol. 18 (October 30, 1964) (ddr-pc-36-44)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 59, Vol. 18 (October 30, 1964) (ddr-pc-36-44)
Selected article titles: "Nisei Favoring Prop. 14 Are 'Misguided" Says Enomoto" (p.1), "8,000 Aliens Who Served in U.S. Armed Forces May Be Naturalized" (p.1), "Sen. Kuchel Urges Californians Not to Dignify Bias" (p.1), "Local School Boards Still Retain Power to District Zones, Supreme Court Decides" (p.1), "Soil Conservation Supervisors Hail Nisei Farmer for 'Pay as You …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 58, Vol. 9 (February 28, 1964) (ddr-pc-36-9)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 58, Vol. 9 (February 28, 1964) (ddr-pc-36-9)
Selected article titles: "Rumford Act Repeal Measure Found Qualified" (p.1), "Sen. Kuchel Honored by JACL; Predicts Civil Rights Bill Win" (p.1), "Gov. Brown Pledges Support to Seek Needed Farm Help" (p.1), "PSWDC Major Medical Insurance Program to Be Launced when Brochure Printed" (p.1), "Civil Rights Act" (p.2), "Nisei Pastor of Negro Church Cited" (p.3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 6 (February 5, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-6)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 6 (February 5, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-6)
Selected article titles: "Immigration Amendments Due Early Committee Study" (p.1-2), "Utah Legislature for Validating Mixed Marriages before Repeal" (p.1), "Snake River Valley Issei-Nisei Lauded" (p.1), "Santa Maria Issei Popularizes Salads with Extensive Lettuce, Celery Farming" (p.1).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 10 (March 5, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-10)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 10 (March 5, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-10)
Selected article titles: "1st Civil Rights Bill Passed in State of Utah" (p.1), "Home-Owners near Farm Labor Camp Protest Skid-Row Recruits" (p.1), "Wyoming Governor Signs Act Repealing Miscegenation Law" (p.1), "Immigration Testimony" (p.2), "First California Gray Whale Captured Alive for Sea World by Nisei Commercial Whaler, Considered Top U.S. Sharpshooter" (p.3), "Hawaii's Reapportionment Task Toughened by …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 11 (March 12, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-11)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 11 (March 12, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-11)
Selected article titles: "Orange County Japanese Become Millionaires as Land Value Rise, but Hard Times Strike Growers in Imperial Valley-JHP Learns" (p.1-2), "Documents for History Project Gain in Volume" (p.1-2), "Ventura County Lemon Growers Authorized Limited 'Tanno' Use" (p.1-2), "100th, 442nd Designations to Be Retained" (p.3), "San Francisco Japanese Cultural, Trade Center Groundbreaking Rites Set Mar. …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 25 (June 18, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-25)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 25 (June 18, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-25)
Selected article titles: "History Project: Issei Railroaders in the Rockies" (p.1), "Tanno Laborers May Be Sent Home in Two Weeks: Wirtz" (p.1), "JACL Youth Survey among Chapters On" (p.1), "Supreme Court Decisions" (p.2), "Accent on Youth" (p.2), "Low Voter Registration in Hawaii May Bring in U.S. Registrars" (p.3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 5 (January 29, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-5)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 5 (January 29, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-5)
Selected article titles: "Wyoming Legislature Repeals Anti-Miscegenation Statute" (p.1-2), "Virginia Anti-Miscegenation Law Argued before Special U.S. Court" (p.1-2), "700 Supplemental Farm Workers Placed on 'Stand-By' in California" (p.1), "Alien Land Law Campaign in 1966 Sighted" (p.2).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 61, No. 6 (August 6, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-32)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 61, No. 6 (August 6, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-32)
Selected article titles: "Apartments Outside Minority Section Won't Rent to Nisei" (p.1), "Future of Youth Is in Our Own Making: Y. Wada" (p.1, 4), "Official U.S. Supreme Court Includes Section of Japanese Americans" (p.1, 5), "U.S. and Vietnam" (p.2), "Union Leader Asks Some 700 Tanno Be Returned to Japan"(p.3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 18 (April 30, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-18)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 18 (April 30, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-18)
Selected article titles: "Wirtz Approves Use of Foreign Farm Workers" (p.1, 3), "Inouye Sponsors Bill Dealing with Migratory Labor" (p.1), "History Project: Issei Developed Famous Utah Celery" (p.2), "Nisei Criticizes President's New Farm Bill" (p.3), "Project to House Migrant Farm Laborers under Anti-Poverty Program Stalled" (p.3), "Vice President Humphrey Urges Labor to Assist Minority Citizens to …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 2 (January 8, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-2)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 2 (January 8, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-2)
Selected article titles: "Prop. 14 Upheld in First Test at Orange County" (p.1), "President Johnson Outlines His Thoughts of Great Society" (p.1-2), "California Braceros No More-Growers Uncertain about Future" (p.1), "San Francisco Main Port for Issei Emigres" (p.3), "Preparation Needed to Cope with Japanese Visitors to Hawaii" (p.3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 8 (February 19, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-8)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 8 (February 19, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-8)
Selected article titles: "No Racial Bias in Listing Real Property Asked" (p.1), "Nisei Growers Ask Contracts with 'Tanno' by Completed" (p.1), "History Project Commended by Sheriff for Bolstering Racial Pride and Family Ties" (p.1), "Federal Judges Decline to Rule on Virginia Anti-Miscegenation Case" (p.1-2), "Sen. Kuchel Criticizes Continuation of National Origins Limit on Immigration, Calls for …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 3 (January 15, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-3)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 3 (January 15, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-3)
Selected article titles: "Another Angle Proposed to Eliminate Alien Land Law" (p.1), "Texas Issei Pioneers in Farming Had Little Thought of 'Hiki-Age'" (p.1-2, 4), "Japanese Supplemental Farm Workers Program in California Jeopardized by Latest U.S. Labor Dept. Rule to Remove Braceros" (p.1), "Los Angeles Area Oriental Groups Form Council" (p.3-4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 74, No. 6 (February 18, 1972) (ddr-pc-44-6)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 74, No. 6 (February 18, 1972) (ddr-pc-44-6)
Selected article titles: "Seattle Fire Chief Raps Article Poking Fun at Asians, Chicanos" (p.1), "L.A. High Tensions Still Unabated" (p.1), "Mike Masaoka Hands in Notice to Terminate" (p.1), "Fear of Hysteria Led to Evacuation" (p.3-4), "Spring Pilgrimage to Manzanar on Mar. 25 Prelude to Dedication" (p.3-4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 75, No. 17 (October 27, 1972) (ddr-pc-44-42)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 75, No. 17 (October 27, 1972) (ddr-pc-44-42)
Selected article titles: "Utah Japanese Opposing Two Expansion Plans" (p.1), "Great Western Sugar Purchased by Nisei-Chaired Cooperative" (p.1), "Looking After 3,000 Acres" (p.2), "School Busing in Calif. Face Voters as Proposition 21" (p.4).
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