Economic losses

The economic and emotional toll associated with the uprooting of Japanese Americans from their homes and businesses was enormous. The cost was especially high for the issei (first-generation immigrants), who had worked most of their lives to establish financial security for themselves and their children. Many Japanese Americans bitterly recall being forced to sell property, personal belongings, and business equipment for a fraction of their value to opportunistic scavengers. Evacuees could take only what they could carry. They left behind heirlooms, cherished toys, and family pets. Farmers continued to work for a harvest they would never see, told it would be "disloyal" to stop. The bustling Nihonmachis (Japantowns) of the West Coast closed down and never fully recovered, even after the war ended.

World War II (66)
Economic losses (246)

246 items
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 42, No. 10 (March 9, 1956) (ddr-pc-28-10)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 42, No. 10 (March 9, 1956) (ddr-pc-28-10)
Selected article titles: "Lane-Hillings Evacuation Claims Bill Unanimously Passed by House" (p. 1), "Asia Reds keep up discrimination tales" (p. 1), "JACL Asks FBI Hunt 'Lincoln Yamamoto'" (p. 1), "Bob Sakata honored Colorado's young farmer of year" (p. 2), "Oregon governor praises Japanese Americans, say 'no group has better earned' right to citizenship at Snake River …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 49, No. 4 (July 24, 1959) (ddr-pc-31-30)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 49, No. 4 (July 24, 1959) (ddr-pc-31-30)
Selected article titles: "U.C. regents clear campus of fraternity bias" (p. 1), "Idaho Nisei regains U.S. citizenship as private bill signed" (p. 1), "JACL support of returning vested property told in detail" (p. 1), "Father LaFarge takes issue with stand of Eisenhower on civil rights legislation" (p. 1), "Saibara Family credited by American rice industry for …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 49, No. 3 (July 17, 1959) (ddr-pc-31-29)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 49, No. 3 (July 17, 1959) (ddr-pc-31-29)
Selected article titles: "Evacuee claimant's private bill to extend filing deadline vetoed" (p. 1), "Hawaiian statehood certain to affect racial policies of Australia, New Zealand" (p. 2), "Names hurt like sticks, stones" (p. 7), "California fair housing bill signed, affects FHA-VA homes" (p. 8).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 49, No. 2 (July 10, 1959) (ddr-pc-31-28)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 49, No. 2 (July 10, 1959) (ddr-pc-31-28)
Selected article titles: "JACL protests use of vested property to settle Japanese war claims" (p. 1), "Fathers in Japan losing traditional dominance in family, delinquency mounts" (p. 1), "Close association of Zen Buddhism with beatniks doesn't disturb Zen philosopher" (p. 1), "55 AJAs on general election ballot for Hawaii legislature" (p. 3), "Rep. Roosevelt bill to …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 53, No. 6 (August 11, 1961) (ddr-pc-33-32)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 53, No. 6 (August 11, 1961) (ddr-pc-33-32)
Selected article titles: "JACL Urges Vested Property Bill Be Reported by House" (p. 1), "Northwest Picture: 12th Seafair Sails into Sunset" (p. 2), and "PSWDC Delegates Hear Progress Report of Issei Story Project, Simple Questionnaires for Issei Made Available" (p. 4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 52, No. 9 (March 3, 1961) (ddr-pc-33-9)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 52, No. 9 (March 3, 1961) (ddr-pc-33-9)
Selected article titles: "U.S. Supreme Court Decides Cases Affecting Civil Rights: Court to Review Denaturalization Law Passed by Congress" (p. 1), "'Life' Magazine Rebuked for Insisting 'Jap' as Colloquial" (p. 1), and "Full Return or Compensation for Confiscated Japanese Property by U.S. Urged in Report" (p. 1).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 55, No. 6 (August 10, 1962) (ddr-pc-34-32)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 55, No. 6 (August 10, 1962) (ddr-pc-34-32)
Selected article titles: "JACL Fears Bill to Tax-Exempt Claims May Be Pigeonholed" (p.1), "Jewish Press Raises Issue Against IRS on Taxing Evacuation Claim Awards" (p.1-2), "Nisei Week Festival Launches 22nd Edition; 10 Vie for Queenship" (p.1), "Chinese American Judge Hears Case Suing County Grand Jury System Bans Negroes" (p.3), "Memorial Service to Enshrine 3,000 Nisei War …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 55, No. 4 (July 27, 1962) (ddr-pc-34-30)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 55, No. 4 (July 27, 1962) (ddr-pc-34-30)
Selected article titles: "Gov. Brown Vows to Make Appeal to JFK on Japanese Evacuees Tax Claim" (p.1), "Myer Lauds Calm Attitude of Issei in Convention Tribute" (p.1), "The Portuguese of Hawaii, Once Classified Separately in Census, Preferred by Sugar Planters Because of Philosophy" (p.1-2).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 58, Vol. 20 (May 15, 1964) (ddr-pc-36-20)
ds Pacific Citizen, Vol. 58, Vol. 20 (May 15, 1964) (ddr-pc-36-20)
Selected article titles: "Fiction Can Be Damaging" (p.1), "Norman Thomas to Be Honored at 18th Biennial" (p.1), "442nd Veterans Join Nat'l JACL in May 30 Rites" (p.1), "Pension Rights for Evacuees on Ballot" (p.1), "Watering Down Rights Bill?" (p.2), "Sansei Urged to Keep Japanese Heritage" (p.3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 58, Vol. 13 (March 27, 1964) (ddr-pc-36-13)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 58, Vol. 13 (March 27, 1964) (ddr-pc-36-13)
Selected article titles: "Threat of June Vote Pressing Rumford Act" (p.1-2), "Yen Deposit Compromise Ruled" (p.1), "Youth Leadership Program Announced" (p.1).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 61, No. 17 (October 22, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-43)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 61, No. 17 (October 22, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-43)
Selected article titles: "Juror's Oath on Belief in God Nix in Maryland" (p.1), "Against the KKK in Bogalusa" (p.1), "History Project: Prehistoric Americans Hailed from Asia" (p.1), "Last Evacuation Claim"(p.2).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 7 (February 12, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-7)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 7 (February 12, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-7)
Selected article titles: "Warren's 1942 Stand Demanding Evacuation Hit" (p.1), "Agricultural Exploits of Early Day Issei in San Luis Obispo, Watsonville, Role in Monterey Fishing Told History Project" (p.1, 4), "Great Lack of Communication between Nisei and Sansei Note by Psychologists" (p.1), "Utah Governor Signs Mixed Marriage Bill" (p.1), "'Nisei: the Pride and the Shame'" (p.2, …
Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Teru Koyama (ddr-one-5-10)
Envelope addressed to Dr. Kei Koyama at Fort Missula from his wife, Teru Koyama, in Portland. Postmarked March 24, 1942. In the lower left corner is a "CENSORED" stamp. The enclosed letter, dated March 23, 1942, has the same stamp at the top of the page. Teru writes about receiving his last letter, which made everyone …
Letter to Teru Koyama from Dr. Keizaburo
doc Letter to Teru Koyama from Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama (ddr-one-5-4)
Letter dated January 27, 1942, to Teru Koyama from her husband, Kei Koyama. In the letter Kei writes about receiving the packages mailed to him and advises that the money he sent is to settle business matters in Portland related to his dental office, and asks her not to lease it Dr. S. but to Dr. …
Japanese Americans boarding up their store (ddr-densho-151-234)
img Japanese Americans boarding up their store (ddr-densho-151-234)
Original caption: San Francisco, California. Owners of Japanese ancestry board up windows of their stores prior to evacuation. Evacuees will be housed in War Relocation Authority centers for the duration.
Laundry business preparing to close (ddr-densho-151-304)
img Laundry business preparing to close (ddr-densho-151-304)
Original caption: San Francisco, California. Everywhere in the Japanese quarter are evidence of the coming evacuation. This is a laundry and cleaning business which is just winding up its affairs prior to evacuation.
Issei preparing farm for mass removal (ddr-densho-151-270)
img Issei preparing farm for mass removal (ddr-densho-151-270)
Original caption: Woodland, California. This mother of Japanese ancestry is ready with her family of ten, to leave their farm the following morning in compliance with Civilian Exclusion Order. The figure in the background is a Negro laborer employed by the new tenants who have taken over the farm and are now operating it.
img "Evacuation sale" at store run by Japanese Americans (ddr-densho-151-138)
Original caption: San Francisco, California. A close-out sale- prior to evacuation- at store operated by proprietor of Japanese ancestry on Grant Avenue in Chinatown. The evacuees of Japanese descent will be housed in War Relocation Authority centers for the duration.
Signs advertising household goods (ddr-densho-151-319)
img Signs advertising household goods (ddr-densho-151-319)
Original caption: Sacramento, California. Evidence of evacuation is seen in the Japanese quarter two days prior to evacuation of residents of Japanese ancestry from this city.
Issei farmer discussing lease with Chinese businessman (ddr-densho-151-285)
img Issei farmer discussing lease with Chinese businessman (ddr-densho-151-285)
Original caption: Hayward, California. Negi family, operators of a forty-acre leased truck farm, complete arrangements with a Chinese business man who is taking over this farm and equipment at the time of the family's voluntary evacuation to Colorado, prior to Civilian Exclusion Orders.
img "Evacuation sale" at shop run by Japanese Americans (ddr-densho-151-139)
Original caption: San Francisco, California. A close-out sale- prior to evacuation- at store operated by proprietor of Japanese ancestry on Grant Avenue in Chinatown. The evacuees of Japanese descent will be housed in War Relocation Authority centers for the duration.
Closing barn on day of mass removal (ddr-densho-151-194)
img Closing barn on day of mass removal (ddr-densho-151-194)
Original caption: Centerville, California. Nailing the hayloft door on the morning of evacuation. Farmers and other evacuees of Japanese ancestry will be given opportunities to follow their callings at War Relocation Authority centers where they will spend the duration.
House for rent in Japantown (ddr-densho-151-317)
img House for rent in Japantown (ddr-densho-151-317)
Original caption: Sacramento, California. Rooming House in the Japanese section of town. Photograph taken two days before evacuation.
Farmer closing his greenhouse prior to mass removal (ddr-densho-151-128)
img Farmer closing his greenhouse prior to mass removal (ddr-densho-151-128)
Original caption: Mission San Jose, California. Ready to close the doors of greenhouse on strawberry truck farm in Santa Clara County. Evacuees of Japanese descent will be housed in War Relocation Authority center for the duration.
Yugoslavian man taking over Japanese-operated farm (ddr-densho-151-122)
img Yugoslavian man taking over Japanese-operated farm (ddr-densho-151-122)
Original caption: Centerville, California. Yugoslavian farmer is taking over berry farm formerly operated by residents of Japanese ancestry, who are being sent to assembly points and later to be housed in War Relocation Authority centers for the duration.
API