Fred Korematsu

Fred Korematsu was a welder who lost his job after the attack on Pearl Harbor when the Boilermakers Union expelled all Japanese American members. Korematsu decided to resist the mass removal orders, and planned to leave the state. On May 30, 1942, Korematsu was arrested for violating the exclusion order after failing to report to Tanforan Assembly Center. When Korematsu was contacted by an ACLU lawyer looking for a test case, he decided to fight the evacuation order. Korematsu lost his Supreme Court case in 1944. In the early 1980s, his case was reopened after the discovery of a crucial document indicating that in the original 1944 case, the federal government had lied to the high court. The conviction was vacated by U.S. District Judge Marilyn Hall Patel in 1983.

World War II (20)
Resistance and dissidence (10)
Supreme Court cases (10)
Fred Korematsu (75)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Ernest Besig, Final Report, Japanese Evacuation from the West Coast, 1942 (book), Korematsu v. United States, Fred Korematsu, Edward L. Parsons, Marilyn Hall Patel, A.L. Wirin

75 items
Fred Korematsu Interview Segment 2 (ddr-densho-1012-1-2)
vh Fred Korematsu Interview Segment 2 (ddr-densho-1012-1-2)
Hearing about Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor (audio only)

This interview is audio-only. It contains raw footage used by Steven Okazaki in his 1985 film Unfinished Business.

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in ...

Peter Irons Interview Segment 15 (ddr-densho-1012-16-15)
vh Peter Irons Interview Segment 15 (ddr-densho-1012-16-15)
Initial reactions to the judge's ruling in the Korematsu case (audio only)

This interview is audio-only. It contains raw footage used by Steven Okazaki in his 1985 film Unfinished Business.

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or ...

Peter Irons Interview Segment 2 (ddr-densho-1012-16-2)
vh Peter Irons Interview Segment 2 (ddr-densho-1012-16-2)
Fred Korematsu's plastic surgery and motivations for resisting the incarceration (audio only)

This interview is audio-only. It contains raw footage used by Steven Okazaki in his 1985 film Unfinished Business.

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or ...

Dale Minami Interview I Segment 1 (ddr-densho-1012-6-1)
vh Dale Minami Interview I Segment 1 (ddr-densho-1012-6-1)
First thoughts on the Korematsu decision (audio only)

This interview is audio-only. It contains raw footage used by Steven Okazaki in his 1985 film Unfinished Business.

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material ...

Pacific Citizen, Vol. 94, No. 6 (February 12, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-6)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 94, No. 6 (February 12, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-6)
Selected article titles: "Immigration Raids Alarm Little Tokyo" (pp. 1, 12), "FDR 'Tapes' Tell More Than a Few Racial Slurs" (pp. 1, 7), "60th Anniversary Installation: Why the JACL Endures" (p. 7), and "The Major Supreme Court Error of WW2: Evacuation Cases" (p. 9).
Peter Irons Interview II Segment 21 (ddr-densho-1000-127-21)
vh Peter Irons Interview II Segment 21 (ddr-densho-1000-127-21)
Judge Patel vacates Fred Korematsu's forty-year-old conviction; reaction to Judge Patel's opinion: "I just felt overjoyed at what had happened"
Fred Korematsu - Kathryn Korematsu Interview Segment 15 (ddr-densho-1000-181-15)
vh Fred Korematsu - Kathryn Korematsu Interview Segment 15 (ddr-densho-1000-181-15)
Beginning to talk about Fred's wartime conviction

Due to technical difficulties and conditions at the time of taping, there is loud background noise in this interview.

Lorraine Bannai Interview Segment 26 (ddr-densho-1000-113-26)
vh Lorraine Bannai Interview Segment 26 (ddr-densho-1000-113-26)
Opportunity to work on "a case of a lifetime," meeting the "cultural icon" Fred Korematsu
Lorraine Bannai Interview Segment 33 (ddr-densho-1000-113-33)
vh Lorraine Bannai Interview Segment 33 (ddr-densho-1000-113-33)
Importance of public education campaign in conjunction with legal efforts, working with Fred Korematsu
Dale Minami Interview Segment 39 (ddr-densho-1000-141-39)
vh Dale Minami Interview Segment 39 (ddr-densho-1000-141-39)
Hearing on the petition before Judge Marilyn Hall Patel; writing the argument to be presented the following day
Dale Minami Interview Segment 27 (ddr-densho-1000-141-27)
vh Dale Minami Interview Segment 27 (ddr-densho-1000-141-27)
First impressions of Fred Korematsu; Fred's initial concern over the legal team's youth, lack of experience
Dale Minami Interview Segment 38 (ddr-densho-1000-141-38)
vh Dale Minami Interview Segment 38 (ddr-densho-1000-141-38)
Presenting Fred Korematsu's case in a larger political context: "this is an American story about civil rights"
Memo regarding the Korematsu brief (ddr-densho-67-105)
doc Memo regarding the Korematsu brief (ddr-densho-67-105)
Memo to Cooley from J.L. Burling on the Korematsu brief. Burling wants to insert a paragraph into the brief showing that Japanese internment was for the protection of Japanese people.
Fred Korematsu - Kathryn Korematsu Interview Segment 1 (ddr-densho-1012-8-1)
vh Fred Korematsu - Kathryn Korematsu Interview Segment 1 (ddr-densho-1012-8-1)
Fred Korematsu's decision to bring the coram nobis case (audio only)

This interview is audio-only. It contains raw footage used by Steven Okazaki in his 1985 film Unfinished Business.

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations ...

Fred Korematsu Interview Segment 6 (ddr-densho-1012-1-6)
vh Fred Korematsu Interview Segment 6 (ddr-densho-1012-1-6)
Being sent to an assembly center after hearing (audio only)

This interview is audio-only. It contains raw footage used by Steven Okazaki in his 1985 film Unfinished Business.

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in ...

Dale Minami Interview II Segment 3 (ddr-densho-1012-7-3)
vh Dale Minami Interview II Segment 3 (ddr-densho-1012-7-3)
Fred Korematsu's motivations for resisting the curfew (audio only)

This interview is audio-only. It contains raw footage used by Steven Okazaki in his 1985 film Unfinished Business.

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in ...

Peter Irons Interview II Segment 20 (ddr-densho-1000-127-20)
vh Peter Irons Interview II Segment 20 (ddr-densho-1000-127-20)
An emotional hearing: Fred Korematsu makes a "powerful" statement in court
Peter Irons Interview II Segment 19 (ddr-densho-1000-127-19)
vh Peter Irons Interview II Segment 19 (ddr-densho-1000-127-19)
Facing resistance and hostility from the government's attorney, Victor Stone
Fred Korematsu - Kathryn Korematsu Interview Segment 3 (ddr-densho-1000-181-3)
vh Fred Korematsu - Kathryn Korematsu Interview Segment 3 (ddr-densho-1000-181-3)
Thoughts on being arrested: "I figured it was unconstitutional what they were doing"

Due to technical difficulties and conditions at the time of taping, there is loud background noise in this interview.

Amicus brief filed in the Korematsu case (ddr-densho-35-428)
doc Amicus brief filed in the Korematsu case (ddr-densho-35-428)
Amicus Curiae brief filed on behalf of the states of California, Oregon and Washington in the Supreme Court case Korematsu v. United States of America.
Dale Minami Interview Segment 40 (ddr-densho-1000-141-40)
vh Dale Minami Interview Segment 40 (ddr-densho-1000-141-40)
The government's repeated attempts to delay Korematsu's coram nobis case
Fred Korematsu - Kathryn Korematsu Interview Segment 9 (ddr-densho-1000-181-9)
vh Fred Korematsu - Kathryn Korematsu Interview Segment 9 (ddr-densho-1000-181-9)
Looking back on legal challenges: "I feel that a wrong has righted"

Due to technical difficulties and conditions at the time of taping, there is loud background noise in this interview.

Lorraine Bannai Interview Segment 35 (ddr-densho-1000-113-35)
vh Lorraine Bannai Interview Segment 35 (ddr-densho-1000-113-35)
Supportive Japanese American community provides financial and emotional support for legal team and also appreciation for long-awaited vindication
API