"Voluntary evacuation"

For a three-week period during World War II, after Japanese Americans had been excluded from the West Coast but before plans for concentration camps had been finalized, a period of "voluntary evacuation" took place. Government officials hoped that the Japanese Americans barred from keeping their homes on the West Coast would make arrangements to move inland on their own, saving valuable military resources. However, state government officials and residents of neighboring states reacted with outrage that Japanese Americans were being encouraged to move there. Most Japanese Americans feared moving into such hostile territory where they would know no one. Further, few Japanese Americans had the resources to move their families to a new place. In total, 4,889 Japanese Americans left the West Coast "voluntarily" and moved to the interior of the U.S. during that period.

World War II (215)
Non-incarcerated Japanese Americans (16)
"Voluntary evacuation" (47)

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Voluntary evacuation

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47 items
Family standing outside a gas station (ddr-densho-5-18)
img Family standing outside a gas station (ddr-densho-5-18)
The Fukuda family was originally from Seattle and voluntarily relocated to Nampa, Idaho, during World War II. After the war, the family moved to Spokane, Washington. Front (left to right): Janet, Lillian, and Alan Fukuda. Back: Jim Fukuda holding his daughter Mitsue, Mrs. Fukuda, and Rina Fukuda.
Travel permit (ddr-densho-338-182)
doc Travel permit (ddr-densho-338-182)
Travel permit allowing Guyo Tajiri to move to Salt Lake City, Utah before forced removal.
Four letters to Yuri Domoto from Tak Negi (ddr-densho-356-290)
doc Four letters to Yuri Domoto from Tak Negi (ddr-densho-356-290)
Four letters to Yuriko Domoto Tsukada from Tak Negi. All letters stored in one envelope, unclear if they were mailed together or separately. Letter dated 9/24/1942 most likely associated with the envelope. Letter dated 9/24: details about a visit to Granada and the thoughts and feelings that came from the visit. 7/21 letter: describes weather conditions …
Letter to Yuri Domoto from Alice (ddr-densho-356-341)
doc Letter to Yuri Domoto from Alice (ddr-densho-356-341)
Letter to Yuriko Domoto Tsukada from Alice in which Alice writes about her feeling on being away from Amache, and the various reactions she gets from people outside the camp, including Japanese-Americans who fled to the East Coast before mass removal. Item tied together with all objects between ddr-densho-356-321 and ddr-densho-356-413.
Issei farmer discussing lease with Chinese businessman (ddr-densho-151-285)
img Issei farmer discussing lease with Chinese businessman (ddr-densho-151-285)
Original caption: Hayward, California. Negi family, operators of a forty-acre leased truck farm, complete arrangements with a Chinese business man who is taking over this farm and equipment at the time of the family's voluntary evacuation to Colorado, prior to Civilian Exclusion Orders.
Namiye Fukuzawa Interview (ddr-densho-400-3)
av Namiye Fukuzawa Interview (ddr-densho-400-3)
Namiye Fukuzawa was born on June 30, 1925, in Los Angeles, California. Namiye's father was a vegetable hauler and her mother was a housewife living in Gardena, California. During World War II, Namiye and her family relocated to Logan, Utah. After the war they moved back to Gardena, California. This interview is part of the South …
Harold Takashi Kobata Interview (ddr-densho-400-12)
av Harold Takashi Kobata Interview (ddr-densho-400-12)
Harold Takashi Kobata was born on April 5, 1926, in Gardena, California. He grew up in Gardena where his uncle, mother and older brothers ran a flower nursery. The family moved to Salt Lake City, Utah, during World War II, where Kobata worked as a gardener while attending high school. After the war the family returned …
George Kobayashi Interview (ddr-densho-400-13)
av George Kobayashi Interview (ddr-densho-400-13)
George Kobayashi was born on February 20, 1924, in Torrance, California. He was one of three children, and his parents' names were Tamechi and Yuko Kobayashi. His father was a farmer in Gardena and his mother was a housewife. When the war broke out, he and his family moved to Fort Lupton, Colorado. During the war …
Floyd Schmoe Interview I Segment 4 (ddr-densho-1000-83-4)
vh Floyd Schmoe Interview I Segment 4 (ddr-densho-1000-83-4)
Assisting Japanese American students avoid the curfew and get off the West Coast

In this interview Mr. Schmoe refers to Aki Kurose, a former employee, fellow Quaker, peace activist, and long-time friend. At the time of this interview, Ms. Kurose had recently passed away after a long struggle with cancer. At the time of this interview, …

Floyd Schmoe Interview I Segment 3 (ddr-densho-1000-83-3)
vh Floyd Schmoe Interview I Segment 3 (ddr-densho-1000-83-3)
Finding inland universities willing to accept Japanese American students at the beginning of World War II

In this interview Mr. Schmoe refers to Aki Kurose, a former employee, fellow Quaker, peace activist, and long-time friend. At the time of this interview, Ms. Kurose had recently passed away after a long struggle with cancer. At the time …

Mae Kanazawa Hara Interview Segment 10 (ddr-densho-1000-168-10)
vh Mae Kanazawa Hara Interview Segment 10 (ddr-densho-1000-168-10)
Disposing of belongings; brothers moved during "voluntary evacuation" period
Tak Yamashita Interview Segment 23 (ddr-densho-1000-365-23)
vh Tak Yamashita Interview Segment 23 (ddr-densho-1000-365-23)
Disposing of possessions and deciding to move to Colorado

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the …

Tak Yamashita Interview Segment 25 (ddr-densho-1000-365-25)
vh Tak Yamashita Interview Segment 25 (ddr-densho-1000-365-25)
"Voluntary evacuation" to Colorado

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the Interior.

Lawson I. Sakai Segment 6 (ddr-densho-1000-472-6)
vh Lawson I. Sakai Segment 6 (ddr-densho-1000-472-6)
Family voluntarily moves to Colorado, visits Manzanar on the way
Fred Hirasuna Segment 2 (ddr-densho-1000-21-2)
vh Fred Hirasuna Segment 2 (ddr-densho-1000-21-2)
"Voluntary evacuation" to Minnesota from California

This interview was conducted at the Voices of Japanese American Redress Conference, held on the UCLA campus and sponsored by the UCLA Asian American Studies Center and the UCLA School of Public Policy and Social Research. Because of the full conference schedule, our interviews were limited to one hour. The …

Junkoh Harui Segment 11 (ddr-densho-1000-11-11)
vh Junkoh Harui Segment 11 (ddr-densho-1000-11-11)
An eight-year-old's confusion after the bombing of Pearl Harbor

This interview was done outdoors in the Bainbridge Gardens Nursery which resulted in increased background noise and frequent interruptions by the business P.A. system.

Junkoh Harui Segment 12 (ddr-densho-1000-11-12)
vh Junkoh Harui Segment 12 (ddr-densho-1000-11-12)
Preparing to move to Moses Lake, Washington to avoid the mass removal, and father's efforts to protect his beloved trees

This interview was done outdoors in the Bainbridge Gardens Nursery which resulted in increased background noise and frequent interruptions by the business P.A. system.

Junkoh Harui Segment 13 (ddr-densho-1000-11-13)
vh Junkoh Harui Segment 13 (ddr-densho-1000-11-13)
Negative memories of Moses Lake, Washington: being under "surveillance," memories of getting beat up every day for a month in grade school

This interview was done outdoors in the Bainbridge Gardens Nursery which resulted in increased background noise and frequent interruptions by the business P.A. system.

Bill Nishimura Interview Segment 4 (ddr-densho-1000-119-4)
vh Bill Nishimura Interview Segment 4 (ddr-densho-1000-119-4)
Family undertakes "voluntary evacuation" to Visalia, California

This interview took place at the 2000 Tule Lake Pilgrimage in Klamath Falls, Oregon.

Sam Araki Interview Segment 5 (ddr-densho-1000-402-5)
vh Sam Araki Interview Segment 5 (ddr-densho-1000-402-5)
Hearing that the FBI was after him, Father decides to move the family inland

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views …

Nobu Suzuki Interview I Segment 23 (ddr-densho-1000-84-23)
vh Nobu Suzuki Interview I Segment 23 (ddr-densho-1000-84-23)
Working for the War Relocation Authority, helping people move before the mass removal: $50 for train fare to "wherever"

References are made to several of Nobu Suzuki's personal papers, which are currently available for public perusal at the University of Washington's Manuscripts and University Archives.

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