Since banks would not lend to Japanese immigrants, these enterprising Issei formed groups to pool their resources. For the tanomoshii system of credit, members would contribute monthly to a pooled account and take turns drawing funds to start or expand a business. The Japanese also formed farming cooperatives that helped growers purchase supplies and market their crops. Under this system, a Japanese grower placed his produce on consignment with a Japanese packer-shipper who would sell the produce to a Japanese fruit-stand operator.
This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the Interior.