Nisei male. Born May 3, 1923, in Auburn, California. Grew up in the Sacramento Valley, where parents ran a farm. During World War II, removed to the Manzanar concentration camp, California. Worked as a hospital orderly in camp. Forced to sit with a young man who had been shot during the "Manzanar Riot," and quit job as an orderly as a result of this incident. Served in the Military Intelligence Service. Left camp and attended the University of Illinois for a time, then moved to Berkeley to complete school. While a professor at Berkeley, published numerous findings, including studies regarding police use of deadly force.