Nisei female. Born April 11, 1923, in Seattle, Washington. Grew up in Seattle, where parents ran a hotel. Went to live in Japan for several years prior to World War II. During the war, removed to the Puyallup Assembly Center, Washington, and the Minidoka concentration camp, Idaho. While in Minidoka, recruited to teach elementary school, and later left camp to attend a teaching college in Wisconsin. After World War II, received a Fulbright scholarship to study special education methods in Japan. Returned to the United States and settled in Oakland, California.