Nisei male. Born August 10, 1925, in Chicago, Illinois. Grew up primarily in Los Angeles, California, where parents ran a restaurant. After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, removed to the Santa Anita Assembly Center, California, where he participating in running an organized gambling operation. Moved briefly to Heart Mountain concentration camp, Wyoming, before being sent to Tule Lake, California, after signing the so-called "loyalty questionnaire." Transferred to the Santa Fe Department of Justice internment camp, New Mexico. Upon wishes of parents, renounced U.S. citizenship and expatriated to Japan. Worked for the military government during the U.S. occupation of Japan. Eventually regained U.S. citizenship and returned to the United States.