Nisei male. Born December 18, 1921, in Los Angeles, California. Parents owned and operated a restaurant. Father passed away prior to the onset of World War II, so mother was responsible for preparing the family to move to camp. Removed to Manzanar concentration camp, California, and in 1942, was shot by a military police officer while picking up scrap lumber. Renounced U.S. citizenship and expatriated to Japan where he worked for six years before returning to California.