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            "title": "James Omura and Caryl Fumiko Okuma",
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            "title": "Randy Senzaki Interview",
            "description": "Sansei male. Was National Director for the Japanese American Citizens League in 1994 and 1995.<p>(This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, <i>Conscience and the Constitution</i>, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing on issues surrounding the resistance movement itself.)",
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            "contributor": "Frank Abe Collection",
            "rights": "cc",
            "genre": "interview",
            "location": "San Francisco, California",
            "creation": "May 5, 1996",
            "status": "completed",
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            "index": "2 1927/{'value': 1950, 'relation': 'eq'}",
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            "title": "Donald K. Tamaki Interview",
            "description": "Born in 1951, Donald K. Tamaki spent his formative years in the era of the African American and Asian American civil rights movements. He studied at the Asian American Studies program at University of California, Berkeley, and became a lawyer inspired by the significant social and political changes of the 1970s. In the early 1980s, he joined the legal effort to overturn Fred Korematsu,  Gordon Hirabayashi and Minoru Yasui cases. Tamaki also served as the Executive Director of the Asian Law Caucus that served low-income clients in the Bay Area. It was around this time that he became involved with US survivors. He felt that these survivors were important living witnesses to the nuclear destruction, and as such, they would be able to encourage more people to support nuclear-free world. He joined Friends of Hibakusha, a group that supports US hibakusha, and assisted media publicity of the biannual medical checkups of American survivors conducted by Japanese physicians. He says that these medical checkups are not only for spreading anti-nuclear messages, but also for collecting scientific data on hibakusha. Tamaki also states that the overall lack of universal health care in the United States was one of the reasons why US survivors' effort in the 1970s to gain the US government's recognition and free medical treatment for their radiation illnesses failed. The US justification for the use of the atomic bombs, too, was the contributing factor. The interview contains his thoughts on interethnic collaborations, importance of shifting the political \"middle,\" military necessity and national security, and nuclear threats.",
            "extent": "1:12:12",
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                    "namepart": "Naoko Wake"
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            "contributor": "Densho",
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            "genre": "interview",
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            "creation": "27-Sep-15",
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            "index": "3 1928/{'value': 1950, 'relation': 'eq'}",
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            "title": "Robert \"Bob\" Bratt Interview",
            "description": "Born in Bethesda, Maryland. During the Redress Movement, worked for the Department of Justice's Office of Redress Administration (ORA), which was established to identify and administer reparations payments to eligible individuals. From 1988 to 1992, was Administrator for the Office of Redress Administration as well as Executive Officer for the Civil Rights and Criminal Division. After retiring from the Department of Justice, worked in the private sector for SAIC, Unisys, then with DLA Piper LLP.<p>(This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the Interior.)",
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                    "namepart": "Emi Kuboyama"
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                    "namepart": "Todd Holmes"
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            "format": "vh",
            "language": [
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            "contributor": "Densho",
            "rights": "nocc",
            "genre": "interview",
            "location": "San Francisco, California",
            "creation": "August 19, 2019",
            "status": "completed",
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            "index": "4 1929/{'value': 1950, 'relation': 'eq'}",
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            "title": "Dale Minami Interview II",
            "description": "Sansei male. Born in Los Angeles, California on October 13, 1946, and grew up in Gardena, California. Received B.A. in Political Science from University of Southern California, graduated magna cum laude and Phi Beta Kappa in 1968. Received J.D., 1971, from Boalt Hall School of Law, University of California. Mr. Minami was a co-founder of the Asian Law Caucus, Inc., a co-founder of the Asian Pacific American Bar Association of the Greater Bay Area, the Asian Pacific Bar of California and the Coalition of Asian Pacific Americans. He was involved in significant litigation affecting civil rights of Asian Pacific Americans and other minorities, including Korematsu v. United States, a lawsuit to overturn a 40 year old conviction for refusal to obey exclusion orders aimed at Japanese Americans during WWII, originally upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court in landmark decisions; United Pilipinos for Affirmative Action v. California Blue Shield, the first class action employment lawsuit brought by Asian Pacific Americans on behalf of Asian Pacific Americans; Spokane JACL v. Washington State University, a class action on behalf of Asian Pacific Americans to establish an Asian American Studies program at Washington State University; and Nakanishi v. UCLA, a claim for unfair denial of tenure which resulted in the granting of tenure after widespread publicity over discrimination in academia. Mr. Minami represents Kristi Yamaguchi, the 1992 Olympic Gold Medal skater, playwright Philip Kan Gotanda, actor Lane Nishikawa, and others in the fields of media and entertainment. He is counsel to the National Asian American Telecommunications Association and the Asian American Journalists' Association. Mr. Minami has taught at University of California, Berkeley and Mills College in Oakland, CA and has been a Commissioner of the State of California's Fair Employment and Housing Commission, a Commissioner on the State Bar of California, Commission on Judicial Nominees Evaluation, the Chair of the Attorney General's Asian/Pacific Advisory Committee and a Member of Senator Barbara Boxer's Judicial Screening Committee. He was Chair of the Civil Liberties Public Education Fund Commission, appointed by President Clinton in 1994. Mr. Minami has received numerous awards including the State Bar President's Pro bono Service Award, an honorary Juris Doctor degree from the McGeorge School of Law, designation of a dormitory at the University of California at Santa Cruz as the \"Queen Liliuokalani-Minami\" Dormitory, awards from the Coro Foundation, the Japanese Cultural and Community Center of Northern California, the Harry Dow Memorial Fellowship in Boston, the Fred Korematsu Civil Rights Fund Award, the Organization of Chinese Americans, the Japanese American Youth Center and the Centro Legale de la Raza. Mr. Minami is a partner with Minami, Lew and Tamaki in San Francisco, and specializes in personal injury and entertainment law.<p>(This interview is audio-only. It contains raw footage used by Steven Okazaki in his 1985 film <i>Unfinished Business</i>. </p><p> This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the Interior.)",
            "extent": "00:14:50",
            "links_children": "ddr-densho-1012-7",
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                {
                    "role": "narrator",
                    "oh_id": 134,
                    "namepart": "Dale Minami"
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            ],
            "format": "vh",
            "language": [
                "eng"
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            "contributor": "Steven Okazaki",
            "rights": "cc",
            "genre": "interview",
            "location": "San Francisco, California",
            "creation": "February 18, 1984",
            "status": "completed",
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        {
            "id": "ddr-densho-1012-14",
            "model": "entity",
            "index": "5 1930/{'value': 1950, 'relation': 'eq'}",
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            "title": "Lorraine Bannai Interview",
            "description": "Sansei female. Born 1955 in Los Angeles, CA. Grew up in Gardena, CA, surrounded by a large Japanese American community. Influenced by father's role in community and politics, and mother's emphasis on education. Attended University of California, Santa Barbara where she became increasingly aware of Japanese American history, issues of ethnic identity and racial inequality. Attended the University of San Francisco School of Law where she honed her commitment to political and social activism. Only a few years out of law school, she joined a team of lawyers working to reopen the Supreme Court's 1944 decision in <i>Korematsu v. United States</i>. Convicted of violating the exclusion order during World War II, Mr. Korematsu's case went all the way to the Supreme Court where the exclusion and incarceration of Japanese Americans was upheld as constitutional, based on the government's argument of \"military necessity.\" Through a petition for writ of error <i>coram nobis</i> (establishing that the case was premised on errors of fact withheld from the judge and the defense by the prosecution), the legal team reopened the case, provided evidence that the factual underpinnings to the exclusion orders were fraudulent, and successfully had the <i>Korematsu</i> conviction vacated, as well as a handful of other similar convictions. In this interview, Ms. Bannai discusses the <i>coram nobis</i> legal team, the support for the effort among the Japanese American community, and personal lessons gained from being a part of this effort.<p>(This interview is audio-only. It contains raw footage used by Steven Okazaki in his 1985 film <i>Unfinished Business</i>. </p><p> This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the Interior.)",
            "extent": "00:08:03",
            "links_children": "ddr-densho-1012-14",
            "creators": [
                {
                    "role": "narrator",
                    "oh_id": 112,
                    "namepart": "Lorraine Bannai"
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            "format": "vh",
            "language": [
                "eng"
            ],
            "contributor": "Steven Okazaki",
            "rights": "cc",
            "genre": "interview",
            "location": "San Francisco, California",
            "creation": "October 1983",
            "status": "completed",
            "search_hidden": "Lorraine Bannai narrator",
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            "model": "entity",
            "index": "6 1931/{'value': 1950, 'relation': 'eq'}",
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            "title": "Gordon Hirabayashi - Jim Hirabayashi Interview",
            "description": "This interview is with Gordon Hirabayashi and his brother Jim Hirabayashi, and focuses on Gordon's World War II experiences. Gordon defied the curfew and removal orders in 1942, and was arrested, convicted, and imprisoned. Gordon Hirabayashi's conviction was vacated in 1986.<p>(This interview is audio-only. It contains raw footage used by Steven Okazaki in his 1985 film <i>Unfinished Business</i>. </p><p> This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the Interior.)",
            "extent": "00:26:08",
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                    "oh_id": 19,
                    "namepart": "Gordon Hirabayashi"
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                    "role": "narrator",
                    "oh_id": 140,
                    "namepart": "Jim Hirabayashi"
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                    "namepart": "Hirabayashi, Akira James"
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            "contributor": "Steven Okazaki",
            "rights": "cc",
            "genre": "interview",
            "location": "San Francisco, California",
            "creation": "December 3, 1983",
            "status": "completed",
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            "model": "entity",
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            },
            "title": "Jim Kajiwara - Sox Kitashima Interview",
            "description": "This interview is with a Nisei couple who were married in 1942 and were incarcerated in the Tanforan Assembly Center, California, and the Topaz concentration camp, Utah, during World War II.<p>(This interview is audio-only. It contains raw footage used by Steven Okazaki in his 1985 film <i>Unfinished Business</i>. </p><p> This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the Interior.)",
            "extent": "00:19:29",
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                    "oh_id": 719,
                    "namepart": "Jim Kajiwara"
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                    "namepart": "Sox Kitashima"
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            "format": "vh",
            "language": [
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            "contributor": "Steven Okazaki",
            "rights": "cc",
            "genre": "interview",
            "location": "San Francisco, California",
            "creation": "December 11, 1983",
            "status": "completed",
            "search_hidden": "Jim Kajiwara narrator \nSox Kitashima narrator",
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            "id": "ddr-densho-1012-16",
            "model": "entity",
            "index": "8 1933/{'value': 1950, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
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            },
            "title": "Peter Irons Interview",
            "description": "White male. Born 1940 in Salem, Massachusetts. Family moved frequently during his childhood due to father's employment. Strongly influenced by parents' values regarding racial tolerance and inclusion, and principles learned through Unitarian Church. While attending Antioch College in Ohio, became involved in political and social activism for civil rights. Joined the youth branch of NAACP, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), and other groups. Active in sit-ins and other demonstrations addressing racial inequality, peace and related issues, eventually becoming a full-time organizer. Worked for the United Autoworkers Union. Resisted the draft, and was indicted by a federal grand jury in 1964. Convicted of failing to report for military service and sentenced to three years in prison. Graduated from Antioch College, 1966. Appealed his conviction to the United States Court of Appeals and lost. Served his sentence in federal institutions in Milan, Michigan, Terre Haute, Indiana, and Danbury, Connecticut. Following release from prison in 1969, attended graduate school at Boston University, obtaining PhD in political science in 1973. Accepted to Harvard Law School. While a law student, researched and filed a writ of error coram nobis with the federal court in which he had been convicted, and as a result had his conviction vacated. (Writ of error coram nobis establishes that the original case was premised on errors of fact withheld from the judge and the defense by the prosecution.) Graduated from Harvard Law School in 1978. Taught undergraduate and law school courses at several schools before joining faculty of the University of California at San Diego. While conducting research at the National Archives and Department of Justice in Washington, D.C. in preparation for writing a book, discovered evidence of governmental misconduct during World War II, which refuted the U.S. government's rationale of \"military necessity\" for the mass incarceration of persons of Japanese ancestry in 1942. Using this evidence, assisted the congressional Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians. Contacted original defendants, initiated formation of legal teams, and was instrumental in filing petitions using the writ of error coram nobis, resulting in the reconsideration of the wartime \"internment cases\": Hirabayashi, Korematsu, and Yasui. Dr. Irons is a professor of political science and director of the Earl Warren Bill of Rights Project at the University of California, San Diego.<p>(This interview is audio-only. It contains raw footage used by Steven Okazaki in his 1985 film <i>Unfinished Business</i>. </p><p> This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the Interior.)",
            "extent": "01:06:01",
            "links_children": "ddr-densho-1012-16",
            "creators": [
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                    "role": "narrator",
                    "oh_id": 122,
                    "namepart": "Peter Irons"
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            ],
            "format": "vh",
            "language": [
                "eng"
            ],
            "contributor": "Steven Okazaki",
            "rights": "cc",
            "genre": "interview",
            "location": "San Francisco, California",
            "creation": "November 11, 1983",
            "status": "completed",
            "search_hidden": "Peter Irons narrator",
            "download_large": "denshovh-ipeter-03-a.jpg"
        },
        {
            "id": "ddr-densho-1012-12",
            "model": "entity",
            "index": "9 1934/{'value': 1950, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://ddr.densho.org/ddr-densho-1012-12/",
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                "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1012/denshovh-hjim_g-01-a.jpg",
                "thumb": "http://ddrmedia.local/media/ddr-densho-1012/denshovh-hjim_g-01-a.jpg"
            },
            "title": "Jim Hirabayashi - Rick Shiomi Interview",
            "description": "This interview is with Japanese Canadian playwright Rick Shiomi and Jim Hirabayashi, brother of Gordon Hirabayashi, who defied the curfew and removal orders in 1942, and was arrested, convicted, and imprisoned. Gordon Hirabayashi's conviction was vacated in 1986.<p>(This interview is audio-only. It contains raw footage used by Steven Okazaki in his 1985 film <i>Unfinished Business</i>. </p><p> This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the Interior.)",
            "extent": "00:16:48",
            "links_children": "ddr-densho-1012-12",
            "creators": [
                {
                    "role": "narrator",
                    "oh_id": 140,
                    "namepart": "Jim Hirabayashi"
                },
                {
                    "role": "narrator",
                    "oh_id": 718,
                    "namepart": "Rick Shiomi"
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            ],
            "format": "vh",
            "language": [
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            ],
            "persons": [
                {
                    "nr_id": "88922/nr014b913",
                    "namepart": "Hirabayashi, Akira James"
                }
            ],
            "contributor": "Steven Okazaki",
            "rights": "cc",
            "genre": "interview",
            "location": "San Francisco, California",
            "creation": "October 27, 1983",
            "status": "completed",
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            "id": "ddr-densho-1012-17",
            "model": "entity",
            "index": "10 1935/{'value': 1950, 'relation': 'eq'}",
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                "html": "https://ddr.densho.org/ddr-densho-1012-17/",
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                "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1012/denshovh-droger-02-a.jpg",
                "thumb": "http://ddrmedia.local/media/ddr-densho-1012/denshovh-droger-02-a.jpg"
            },
            "title": "Roger Daniels Interview",
            "description": "Caucasian male. Born December 1, 1927, in New York City, New York. Charles Phelps Taft Professor Emeritus of History, University of Cincinnati. Served as a consultant to the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians from 1981 to 1983. Has researched and written numerous books about the Japanese American experience, including <i>Prisoners Without Trial: Japanese Americans in World War II</i> and <i>American Concentration Camps: A Documentary History of the Relocation and Incarceration of Japanese Americans, 1941-1945</i>.<p>(This interview is audio-only. It contains raw footage used by Steven Okazaki in his 1985 film <i>Unfinished Business</i>. </p><p> This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the Interior.)",
            "extent": "01:33:15",
            "links_children": "ddr-densho-1012-17",
            "creators": [
                {
                    "role": "narrator",
                    "oh_id": 166,
                    "namepart": "Roger Daniels"
                }
            ],
            "format": "vh",
            "language": [
                "eng"
            ],
            "contributor": "Steven Okazaki",
            "rights": "cc",
            "genre": "interview",
            "location": "San Francisco, California",
            "creation": "November 18, 1983",
            "status": "completed",
            "search_hidden": "Roger Daniels narrator",
            "download_large": "denshovh-droger-02-a.jpg"
        },
        {
            "id": "ddr-densho-1012-18",
            "model": "entity",
            "index": "11 1936/{'value': 1950, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://ddr.densho.org/ddr-densho-1012-18/",
                "json": "https://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-densho-1012-18/",
                "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1012/denshovh-ysharon-01-a.jpg",
                "thumb": "http://ddrmedia.local/media/ddr-densho-1012/denshovh-ysharon-01-a.jpg"
            },
            "title": "Sharon Yuen Interview",
            "description": "Sansei female. Born July 1945 in Seattle, Washington. Daughter of Gordon Hirabayashi.<p>(This interview is audio-only. It contains raw footage used by Steven Okazaki in his 1985 film <i>Unfinished Business</i>. </p><p> This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the Interior.)",
            "extent": "00:04:16",
            "links_children": "ddr-densho-1012-18",
            "creators": [
                {
                    "role": "narrator",
                    "oh_id": 722,
                    "namepart": "Sharon Yuen"
                }
            ],
            "format": "vh",
            "language": [
                "eng"
            ],
            "contributor": "Steven Okazaki",
            "rights": "cc",
            "genre": "interview",
            "location": "San Francisco, California",
            "creation": "October 26, 1983",
            "status": "completed",
            "search_hidden": "Sharon Yuen narrator",
            "download_large": "denshovh-ysharon-01-a.jpg"
        },
        {
            "id": "ddr-densho-1012-6",
            "model": "entity",
            "index": "12 1937/{'value': 1950, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://ddr.densho.org/ddr-densho-1012-6/",
                "json": "https://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-densho-1012-6/",
                "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1012/denshovh-mdale-02-a.jpg",
                "thumb": "http://ddrmedia.local/media/ddr-densho-1012/denshovh-mdale-02-a.jpg"
            },
            "title": "Dale Minami Interview I",
            "description": "Sansei male. Born in Los Angeles, California on October 13, 1946, and grew up in Gardena, California. Received B.A. in Political Science from University of Southern California, graduated magna cum laude and Phi Beta Kappa in 1968. Received J.D., 1971, from Boalt Hall School of Law, University of California. Mr. Minami was a co-founder of the Asian Law Caucus, Inc., a co-founder of the Asian Pacific American Bar Association of the Greater Bay Area, the Asian Pacific Bar of California and the Coalition of Asian Pacific Americans. He was involved in significant litigation affecting civil rights of Asian Pacific Americans and other minorities, including Korematsu v. United States, a lawsuit to overturn a 40 year old conviction for refusal to obey exclusion orders aimed at Japanese Americans during WWII, originally upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court in landmark decisions; United Pilipinos for Affirmative Action v. California Blue Shield, the first class action employment lawsuit brought by Asian Pacific Americans on behalf of Asian Pacific Americans; Spokane JACL v. Washington State University, a class action on behalf of Asian Pacific Americans to establish an Asian American Studies program at Washington State University; and Nakanishi v. UCLA, a claim for unfair denial of tenure which resulted in the granting of tenure after widespread publicity over discrimination in academia. Mr. Minami represents Kristi Yamaguchi, the 1992 Olympic Gold Medal skater, playwright Philip Kan Gotanda, actor Lane Nishikawa, and others in the fields of media and entertainment. He is counsel to the National Asian American Telecommunications Association and the Asian American Journalists' Association. Mr. Minami has taught at University of California, Berkeley and Mills College in Oakland, CA and has been a Commissioner of the State of California's Fair Employment and Housing Commission, a Commissioner on the State Bar of California, Commission on Judicial Nominees Evaluation, the Chair of the Attorney General's Asian/Pacific Advisory Committee and a Member of Senator Barbara Boxer's Judicial Screening Committee. He was Chair of the Civil Liberties Public Education Fund Commission, appointed by President Clinton in 1994. Mr. Minami has received numerous awards including the State Bar President's Pro bono Service Award, an honorary Juris Doctor degree from the McGeorge School of Law, designation of a dormitory at the University of California at Santa Cruz as the \"Queen Liliuokalani-Minami\" Dormitory, awards from the Coro Foundation, the Japanese Cultural and Community Center of Northern California, the Harry Dow Memorial Fellowship in Boston, the Fred Korematsu Civil Rights Fund Award, the Organization of Chinese Americans, the Japanese American Youth Center and the Centro Legale de la Raza. Mr. Minami is a partner with Minami, Lew and Tamaki in San Francisco, and specializes in personal injury and entertainment law.<p>(This interview is audio-only. It contains raw footage used by Steven Okazaki in his 1985 film <i>Unfinished Business</i>. </p><p> This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the Interior.)",
            "extent": "00:10:42",
            "links_children": "ddr-densho-1012-6",
            "creators": [
                {
                    "role": "narrator",
                    "oh_id": 134,
                    "namepart": "Dale Minami"
                }
            ],
            "format": "vh",
            "language": [
                "eng"
            ],
            "contributor": "Steven Okazaki",
            "rights": "cc",
            "genre": "interview",
            "location": "San Francisco, California",
            "creation": "October 4, 1983",
            "status": "completed",
            "search_hidden": "Dale Minami narrator",
            "download_large": "denshovh-mdale-02-a.jpg"
        },
        {
            "id": "ddr-densho-1012-8",
            "model": "entity",
            "index": "13 1938/{'value': 1950, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://ddr.densho.org/ddr-densho-1012-8/",
                "json": "https://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-densho-1012-8/",
                "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1012/denshovh-kfred_g-02-a.jpg",
                "thumb": "http://ddrmedia.local/media/ddr-densho-1012/denshovh-kfred_g-02-a.jpg"
            },
            "title": "Fred Korematsu - Kathryn Korematsu Interview",
            "description": "This interview centers on the experiences of Fred Korematsu, a Nisei who challenged the constitutionality of Executive Order 9066, which authorized the mass removal of Japanese Americans during World War II. Mr. Korematsu lost his initial legal case in 1944, but in the early 1980s, his case was reopened after the discovery of a crucial document indicating that in the original 1944 case, the federal government had lied to the high court. The conviction was vacated by U.S. District Judge Marilyn Hall Patel in 1983.<p>(This interview is audio-only. It contains raw footage used by Steven Okazaki in his 1985 film <i>Unfinished Business</i>. </p><p> This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the Interior.)",
            "extent": "00:32:42",
            "links_children": "ddr-densho-1012-8",
            "creators": [
                {
                    "role": "narrator",
                    "oh_id": 205,
                    "namepart": "Fred Korematsu"
                },
                {
                    "role": "narrator",
                    "oh_id": 206,
                    "namepart": "Kathryn Korematsu"
                }
            ],
            "format": "vh",
            "language": [
                "eng"
            ],
            "persons": [
                {
                    "nr_id": "88922/nr008bb3x",
                    "namepart": "Korematsu, Fred Toyosaburo"
                }
            ],
            "contributor": "Steven Okazaki",
            "rights": "cc",
            "genre": "interview",
            "location": "San Francisco, California",
            "creation": "November 18, 1983",
            "status": "completed",
            "search_hidden": "Fred Korematsu narrator \nKathryn Korematsu narrator Korematsu, Fred Toyosaburo 88922nr008bb3x",
            "download_large": "denshovh-kfred_g-02-a.jpg"
        },
        {
            "id": "ddr-densho-1012-11",
            "model": "entity",
            "index": "14 1939/{'value': 1950, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://ddr.densho.org/ddr-densho-1012-11/",
                "json": "https://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-densho-1012-11/",
                "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1012/denshovh-sjanice_g-01-a.jpg",
                "thumb": "http://ddrmedia.local/media/ddr-densho-1012/denshovh-sjanice_g-01-a.jpg"
            },
            "title": "Janice Sakamoto - Beth Shironaka Interview",
            "description": "This interview is with two Sansei women and focuses on their experiences growing up and learning about their Nisei parents' wartime incarceration experiences.<p>(This interview is audio-only. It contains raw footage used by Steven Okazaki in his 1985 film <i>Unfinished Business</i>. </p><p> This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the Interior.)",
            "extent": "00:19:29",
            "links_children": "ddr-densho-1012-11",
            "creators": [
                {
                    "role": "narrator",
                    "oh_id": 717,
                    "namepart": "Janice Sakamoto"
                },
                {
                    "role": "narrator",
                    "oh_id": 797,
                    "namepart": "Beth Shironaka"
                }
            ],
            "format": "vh",
            "language": [
                "eng"
            ],
            "contributor": "Steven Okazaki",
            "rights": "cc",
            "genre": "interview",
            "location": "San Francisco, California",
            "creation": "December 2, 1983",
            "status": "completed",
            "search_hidden": "Janice Sakamoto narrator \nBeth Shironaka narrator",
            "download_large": "denshovh-sjanice_g-01-a.jpg"
        },
        {
            "id": "ddr-densho-1012-4",
            "model": "entity",
            "index": "15 1940/{'value': 1950, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://ddr.densho.org/ddr-densho-1012-4/",
                "json": "https://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-densho-1012-4/",
                "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1012/denshovh-uchico-01-a.jpg",
                "thumb": "http://ddrmedia.local/media/ddr-densho-1012/denshovh-uchico-01-a.jpg"
            },
            "title": "Chico Uyeda Interview",
            "description": "Nisei male. Grew up in Los Angeles, California. Family moved to the Fresno area to avoid going to camp, but was still sent to the Fresno assembly center, California. Was a member of an advance crew that went early to help set up the Jerome concentration camp, Arkansas.<p>(This interview is audio-only. It contains raw footage used by Steven Okazaki in his 1985 film <i>Unfinished Business</i>. </p><p> This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the Interior.)",
            "extent": "00:47:48",
            "links_children": "ddr-densho-1012-4",
            "creators": [
                {
                    "role": "narrator",
                    "oh_id": 714,
                    "namepart": "Chico Uyeda"
                }
            ],
            "format": "vh",
            "language": [
                "eng"
            ],
            "contributor": "Steven Okazaki",
            "rights": "cc",
            "genre": "interview",
            "location": "San Francisco, California",
            "creation": "December 8, 1983",
            "status": "completed",
            "search_hidden": "Chico Uyeda narrator",
            "download_large": "denshovh-uchico-01-a.jpg"
        },
        {
            "id": "ddr-densho-1007-3",
            "model": "entity",
            "index": "16 1941/{'value': 1950, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://ddr.densho.org/ddr-densho-1007-3/",
                "json": "https://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-densho-1007-3/",
                "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1007/denshovh-mspark-01-a.jpg",
                "thumb": "http://ddrmedia.local/media/ddr-densho-1007/denshovh-mspark-01-a.jpg"
            },
            "title": "Spark M. Matsunaga Interview",
            "description": "Nisei male. Born October 9, 1916, in Kukui'ula, Kauai'i, Hawaii. During World War II, served as an original member of the 100th Infantry Battalion, later the 1st Battalion of the 442nd Regimental Combat team, and also with the Military Intelligence Service. In 1954, was elected to the Hawai'i Territorial Legislature. He was later elected to Congress, where he served six terms, then was elected to the Senate in 1976. Spark Matsunaga also helped in the passage of the redress bill into law on August 19, 1988.<p>(This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the Interior.)",
            "extent": "01:12:54",
            "links_children": "ddr-densho-1007-3",
            "creators": [
                {
                    "role": "narrator",
                    "oh_id": 832,
                    "namepart": "Spark M. Matsunaga"
                },
                {
                    "role": "interviewer",
                    "namepart": "Loni Ding"
                }
            ],
            "format": "vh",
            "language": [
                "eng"
            ],
            "contributor": "Loni Ding Collection",
            "rights": "cc",
            "genre": "interview",
            "location": "San Francisco, California",
            "creation": "April 17, 1987",
            "status": "completed",
            "search_hidden": "Spark M. Matsunaga narrator \nLoni Ding interviewer",
            "download_large": "denshovh-mspark-01-a.jpg"
        },
        {
            "id": "ddr-densho-1002-10",
            "model": "entity",
            "index": "17 1942/{'value': 1950, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://ddr.densho.org/ddr-densho-1002-10/",
                "json": "https://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-densho-1002-10/",
                "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1002/denshovh-yhisaye-01-a.jpg",
                "thumb": "http://ddrmedia.local/media/ddr-densho-1002/denshovh-yhisaye-01-a.jpg"
            },
            "title": "Hisaye Yamamoto Interview",
            "description": "Nisei female. Born August 23, 1921, in Redondo Beach, California. Raised in California before mass removal to Parker Dam Assembly Center, Arizona, which was later converted into Poston concentration camp. An aspiring writer, worked for the camp newspaper, the Poston Chronicle, while incarcerated. After leaving camp, returned to California and worked for the Los Angeles Tribune. In 1988, published a book titled Seventeen Syllables and other stories. Hisaye received an American Book Award for Lifetime Achievement from the Before Columbus Foundation, and several of her short stories were adapted into a PBS film, \"Hot Summer Winds.\"<p>(This interview was conducted by sisters Emiko and Chizuko Omori for their 1999 documentary,<i> Rabbit in the Moon</i>, about the Japanese American resisters of conscience in the World War II incarceration camps. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing on issues surrounding the resistance movement itself.)",
            "extent": "01:21:34",
            "links_children": "ddr-densho-1002-10",
            "creators": [
                {
                    "role": "narrator",
                    "oh_id": 143,
                    "namepart": "Hisaye Yamamoto"
                },
                {
                    "role": "interviewer",
                    "namepart": "Chizu Omori"
                },
                {
                    "role": "interviewer",
                    "namepart": "Emiko Omori"
                },
                {
                    "role": "videographer",
                    "namepart": "Emiko Omori and Witt Mons"
                }
            ],
            "format": "vh",
            "language": [
                "eng"
            ],
            "persons": [
                {
                    "nr_id": "88922/nr0120j20",
                    "namepart": "Yamamoto, Hisaye"
                }
            ],
            "contributor": "Emiko and Chizuko Omori Collection",
            "rights": "cc",
            "genre": "interview",
            "location": "San Francisco, California",
            "creation": "March 21, 1994",
            "status": "completed",
            "search_hidden": "Hisaye Yamamoto narrator \nChizu Omori interviewer \nEmiko Omori interviewer \nEmiko Omori and Witt Mons videographer Yamamoto, Hisaye 88922nr0120j20",
            "download_large": "denshovh-yhisaye-01-a.jpg"
        },
        {
            "id": "ddr-densho-1002-8",
            "model": "entity",
            "index": "18 1943/{'value': 1950, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://ddr.densho.org/ddr-densho-1002-8/",
                "json": "https://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-densho-1002-8/",
                "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1002/denshovh-haiko-02-a.jpg",
                "thumb": "http://ddrmedia.local/media/ddr-densho-1002/denshovh-haiko-02-a.jpg"
            },
            "title": "Aiko Herzig Interview",
            "description": "Nisei female. Born August 5, 1924, in Sacramento, California. Grew up in Sacramento and Los Angeles. During World War II, removed to the Manzanar concentration camp, California, and transferred to the Jerome concentration camp, Arkansas. Washington representative and researcher for National Council for Japanese American Redress (NCJAR) and primary archival researcher for Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians (CWRIC), the three <i>coram nobis</i> cases. Consultant to the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History exhibition. \"A More Perfect Union: Japanese Americans and the United States Constitution\"; and consultant for the Justice Department's Office of Redress Administration.<p>(This interview was conducted by sisters Emiko and Chizuko Omori for their 1999 documentary,<i> Rabbit in the Moon</i>, about the Japanese American resisters of conscience in the World War II incarceration camps. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing on issues surrounding the resistance movement itself.)",
            "extent": "01:52:29",
            "links_children": "ddr-densho-1002-8",
            "creators": [
                {
                    "role": "narrator",
                    "oh_id": 18,
                    "namepart": "Herzig-Yoshinaga, Aiko"
                },
                {
                    "role": "interviewer",
                    "namepart": "Emiko Omori"
                },
                {
                    "role": "interviewer",
                    "namepart": "Chizu Omori"
                },
                {
                    "role": "videographer",
                    "namepart": "Emiko Omori and Witt Mons"
                }
            ],
            "format": "vh",
            "language": [
                "eng"
            ],
            "persons": [
                {
                    "nr_id": "88922/nr009rk47",
                    "namepart": "Miyazaki, Aiko"
                }
            ],
            "contributor": "Emiko and Chizuko Omori Collection",
            "rights": "cc",
            "genre": "interview",
            "location": "San Francisco, California",
            "creation": "March 20, 1994",
            "status": "completed",
            "search_hidden": "Herzig-Yoshinaga, Aiko narrator \nEmiko Omori interviewer \nChizu Omori interviewer \nEmiko Omori and Witt Mons videographer Miyazaki, Aiko 88922nr009rk47",
            "download_large": "denshovh-haiko-02-a.jpg"
        },
        {
            "id": "ddr-densho-1002-9",
            "model": "entity",
            "index": "19 1944/{'value': 1950, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://ddr.densho.org/ddr-densho-1002-9/",
                "json": "https://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-densho-1002-9/",
                "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1002/denshovh-efrank-01-a.jpg",
                "thumb": "http://ddrmedia.local/media/ddr-densho-1002/denshovh-efrank-01-a.jpg"
            },
            "title": "Frank Emi Interview",
            "description": "Nisei male. Born September 23, 1916, in Los Angeles, California. Attended Los Angeles City College for one year before leaving to run the family produce business. Married and had a daughter before being removed to Pomona Assembly Center, California, and Heart Mountain concentration camp, Wyoming. The leader of Heart Mountain's Fair Play Committee, was convicted of resisting the draft, and was imprisoned for eighteen months at Leavenworth, Kansas. After leaving prison, worked for the U.S. post office and the California state unemployment office. Mr. Emi practiced judo as a young person before the war, and postwar, taught at the Hollywood Judo Dojo.<p>(This interview was conducted by sisters Emiko and Chizuko Omori for their 1999 documentary,<i> Rabbit in the Moon</i>, about the Japanese American resisters of conscience in the World War II incarceration camps. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing on issues surrounding the resistance movement itself.)",
            "extent": "01:36:54",
            "links_children": "ddr-densho-1002-9",
            "creators": [
                {
                    "role": "narrator",
                    "oh_id": 142,
                    "namepart": "Frank Emi"
                },
                {
                    "role": "interviewer",
                    "namepart": "Emiko Omori"
                },
                {
                    "role": "interviewer",
                    "namepart": "Chizu Omori"
                }
            ],
            "format": "vh",
            "language": [
                "eng"
            ],
            "persons": [
                {
                    "nr_id": "88922/nr004xx71",
                    "namepart": "Emi, Frank Seishi"
                }
            ],
            "contributor": "Emiko and Chizuko Omori Collection",
            "rights": "cc",
            "genre": "interview",
            "location": "San Francisco, California",
            "creation": "March 20, 1994",
            "status": "completed",
            "search_hidden": "Frank Emi narrator \nEmiko Omori interviewer \nChizu Omori interviewer Emi, Frank Seishi 88922nr004xx71",
            "download_large": "denshovh-efrank-01-a.jpg"
        },
        {
            "id": "ddr-densho-1002-11",
            "model": "entity",
            "index": "20 1945/{'value': 1950, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://ddr.densho.org/ddr-densho-1002-11/",
                "json": "https://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-densho-1002-11/",
                "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1002/denshovh-ojimmie-01-a.jpg",
                "thumb": "http://ddrmedia.local/media/ddr-densho-1002/denshovh-ojimmie-01-a.jpg"
            },
            "title": "Jimmie Omura Interview",
            "description": "Nisei male. Born November 27, 1912, on Bainbridge Island, Washington. After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, moved to Denver and took a job as English Editor of a Japanese American vernacular newspaper, the Rocky Shimpo. As editor, wrote about and supported the Fair Play Committee in Heart Mountain concentration camp. Was charged and tried for conspiracy to counsel draft evasion, and was acquitted on the grounds of the First Amendment and freedom of the press. Mr. Omura was awarded the Lifetime Achievement Award from the Asian American Journalists Association.<p>(This interview was conducted by sisters Emiko and Chizuko Omori for their 1999 documentary,<i> Rabbit in the Moon</i>, about the Japanese American resisters of conscience in the World War II incarceration camps. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing on issues surrounding the resistance movement itself.)",
            "extent": "02:29:25",
            "links_children": "ddr-densho-1002-11",
            "creators": [
                {
                    "role": "narrator",
                    "oh_id": 144,
                    "namepart": "James Omura"
                },
                {
                    "role": "interviewer",
                    "namepart": "Chizu Omori"
                },
                {
                    "role": "interviewer",
                    "namepart": "Emiko Omori"
                },
                {
                    "role": "videographer",
                    "namepart": "Emiko Omori and Witt Mons"
                }
            ],
            "format": "vh",
            "language": [
                "eng"
            ],
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            "description": "Sansei male. Born in Los Angeles, California on October 13, 1946, and grew up in Gardena, California. Received B.A. in Political Science from University of Southern California, graduated magna cum laude and Phi Beta Kappa in 1968. Received J.D., 1971, from Boalt Hall School of Law, University of California. Mr. Minami was a co-founder of the Asian Law Caucus, Inc., a co-founder of the Asian Pacific American Bar Association of the Greater Bay Area, the Asian Pacific Bar of California and the Coalition of Asian Pacific Americans. He was involved in significant litigation affecting civil rights of Asian Pacific Americans and other minorities, including Korematsu v. United States, a lawsuit to overturn a 40 year old conviction for refusal to obey exclusion orders aimed at Japanese Americans during WWII, originally upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court in landmark decisions; United Pilipinos for Affirmative Action v. California Blue Shield, the first class action employment lawsuit brought by Asian Pacific Americans on behalf of Asian Pacific Americans; Spokane JACL v. Washington State University, a class action on behalf of Asian Pacific Americans to establish an Asian American Studies program at Washington State University; and Nakanishi v. UCLA, a claim for unfair denial of tenure which resulted in the granting of tenure after widespread publicity over discrimination in academia. Mr. Minami represents Kristi Yamaguchi, the 1992 Olympic Gold Medal skater, playwright Philip Kan Gotanda, actor Lane Nishikawa, and others in the fields of media and entertainment. He is counsel to the National Asian American Telecommunications Association and the Asian American Journalists' Association. Mr. Minami has taught at University of California, Berkeley and Mills College in Oakland, CA and has been a Commissioner of the State of California's Fair Employment and Housing Commission, a Commissioner on the State Bar of California, Commission on Judicial Nominees Evaluation, the Chair of the Attorney General's Asian/Pacific Advisory Committee and a Member of Senator Barbara Boxer's Judicial Screening Committee. He was Chair of the Civil Liberties Public Education Fund Commission, appointed by President Clinton in 1994. Mr. Minami has received numerous awards including the State Bar President's Pro bono Service Award, an honorary Juris Doctor degree from the McGeorge School of Law, designation of a dormitory at the University of California at Santa Cruz as the \"Queen Liliuokalani-Minami\" Dormitory, awards from the Coro Foundation, the Japanese Cultural and Community Center of Northern California, the Harry Dow Memorial Fellowship in Boston, the Fred Korematsu Civil Rights Fund Award, the Organization of Chinese Americans, the Japanese American Youth Center and the Centro Legale de la Raza. Mr. Minami is a partner with Minami, Lew and Tamaki in San Francisco, and specializes in personal injury and entertainment law.",
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            "display_name": "Kathy Yamaguchi",
            "bio": "Kathy Yamaguchi (pseudonym) was born in 1948 as a Sansei daughter of a homemaker and a gardener, who had met in the incarceration camp in Topaz, Utah. Yamaguchi calls her father an \"assimilationist\" who mostly associated with non-Asians, and she feels that she, too, did not have a lot of Japanese American friends when she was growing up. When Yamaguchi began to pursue medical education at the University of California, San Francisco, in 1971, she realized how her lack of exposure to professional role models, as well as her experience of growing up in an extremely \"non-verbal\" family, made it a challenge for her to be in a decision-making position. She describes herself as being only \"around on the fringes\" of the Asian American activism in the 1970s. She joined the East Bay Socialist Doctors Group and the Physicians for Social Responsibility, and through members of these groups, she learned in the early 1980s about US survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings. She was struck by their graciousness and gratefulness to physicians who offered the needed medical care. \"Given what they've gone through,\" Yamaguchi says, she felt it necessary to assist US hibakusha. She supports a single-payer health care system, and feels that US survivors are one of many groups that have been disadvantaged by the absence of such a system. Yamaguchi also enjoys working with Japanese physicians from Hiroshima who come biannually to conduct a health checkup for American hibakusha. She joined the Sansei Legacy Project beginning in 1990, which put her more in touch with her feelings about being raised by the parents who had been incarcerated during the war. She also made many more Japanese American friends through her participation in the group. At the time of the interview, Yamaguchi worked as a part-time physician in a public clinic serving the underserved patients in San Francisco's Japantown area."
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            "title": "Newspaper clippings",
            "description": "Caption on reverse [translation]: \"Opposes Amendment of the Anti-Japanese Immigration Law. Congressman Kramer Claims Domestic Depression Allows No Leeway. Charles Kramer is currently staying in Hawaii because of his positions on the congressional committees on immigration and narcotics and is spending most of his time in activities related to those areas. Asked for his feelings on the issue of revision of the Anti-Immigration Act, a topic which has been raised in California, he was frank in his opposition, stating:\r\n\r\n'As you know, the debate over revising the Immigration Act has been rekindled, but given that there is a severe economic depression in the United States and large numbers of unemployed, it would be unwise to allow new immigrants to enter. As for the proposal to at least allow Japanese to enter the country in proportions equal to those from Europe, the Chinese, Indians, and other Asians would not be silent if we did so. So we have no choice but to maintain the current law of permitting Asians to come to the US for study and other reasons, but prohibit laborers from coming.'\r\n\r\nThe congressman also stated that Honolulu, like San Francisco and other coastal ports, was becoming a gateway for the smuggling of illegal drugs and that he was undertaking detailed studies of how to prevent that. (Photograph is of Kramer).\"",
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            "creation": "November 28, 1933",
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