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            "display_name": "Kenneth Narahara",
            "bio": "Sansei male. Born December 16, 1936, in Oakland, California. Grew up in Alameda, California, where parents had a florist business. Immediately after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, Japanese Americans were forced to leave Alameda, so the family split up and moved to Oakland. Removed to the Tanforan Assembly Center, California, and the Topaz concentration camp, Utah. After leaving camp, temporarily lived in a Buddhist temple in Oakland before returning to Alameda, where father worked as a gardener and landscaper. Kenneth attended school in Alameda before graduating from business school and working for the Mitsui company in San Francisco."
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            "model": "entity",
            "index": "1 301/{'value': 1950, 'relation': 'eq'}",
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            "title": "Ryo Imamura Interview",
            "description": "Sansei male, born April 28, 1944, in the Gila River concentration camp, Arizona. His father was the late Rev. Kanmo Imamura, a former Bishop of Hawaii and a minister for the Hawaii Kyodan and the Buddhist Churches of America (BCA). His mother Jane Imamura composed many of the children's gathas sung in the Dharma Schools. Both of his grandfathers were Issei ministers, who were instrumental in bringing Jodo Shin Buddhism to America at the beginning of the century. His paternal grandfather was Bishop Yemyo Imamura of the Hawaii Kyodan. And his maternal grandfather was Rev. Issei Matsuura of the Buddhist Churches of America. He received a Bachelor's degree in Mathematics from the University of California at Berkeley, a Master's degree in Counseling from the San Francisco State University, and a Doctorate degree in Counseling Psychology from the University of San Francisco. He received the tokudo and kyoshi ordinations in Kyoto in 1971-2 after which he was a minister for the Hawaii Kyodan and director of the Buddhist Study Center for 4 years and a BCA minister for 11 years. Before moving to Washington in 1988, he was a psychotherapist in California and co-founder of the East-West Counseling Center. Currently he is a professor of Psychology at The Evergreen State College in Olympia, Washington. The focus of his teaching and research is East-West Psychology with an emphasis on Buddhist thought and practice.",
            "extent": "02:52:23",
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                    "oh_id": 31,
                    "namepart": "Ryo Imamura"
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                    "role": "interviewer",
                    "namepart": "Stephen Fugita"
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                {
                    "role": "interviewer",
                    "namepart": "Erin Kimura"
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                    "namepart": "Steve Hamada"
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                    "nr_id": "88922/nr015b11b",
                    "namepart": "Imamura, Michael Ryo"
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            "genre": "interview",
            "location": "Olympia, Washington",
            "creation": "August 3, 1999",
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            "id": "920",
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            "display_name": "Satsuki Ina",
            "bio": "Sansei female. Born May 25, 1944, in the Tule Lake concentration camp, California. Her parents, both Kibei, grew up in San Francisco, California. During World War II, they were incarcerated at the Topaz concentration camp, Utah. They signed \"no-no\" on the so-called \"loyalty questionnaire,\" renounced their U.S. citizenship, and were transferred to Tule Lake when it was designated a segregation camp. Dr. Ina became a psychotherapist specializing in the treatment of community trauma, and in addition to being an author and activist, has produced two award-winning documentaries, Children of the Camps and From A Silk Cocoon."
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            "id": "ddr-densho-156-414",
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            "title": "Information Digest No. 56",
            "description": "Section titles: \"Dies Committee Summons Ray Best\"; \"Appeal Board Planned for Tule Lake Segregants\"; \"Rohwer Schools Buy Three Jeeps\"; \"Seven Nisei Girls Inducted in WAC\"; \"California State Board of Agriculture Resolution\"; \"Clearance Review Committee Enlarged\"; \"Denver Administrative Management Meeting\"; \"Community Councils Taking Active Part in Relocation Program\"; \"Relocation 'Team' Available to All Centers\"; \"Community Councils Taking Active Part in Relocation Program\"; \"Relocation 'Team' Available to All Centers\"; \"Japanese Christian Leaders Hold National Conference\"; \"Property Officers to Meet in San Francisco\"; \"Relocation Office Closes\"; \"Vocational Training Committee Reorganized\"; \"Gila Buddhist Group Promotes Better Understanding\"; \"Central Utah Develops Novel Method for Teaching Basic English\"; \"WRA to Get Newer Motor Equipment\"; \"Personnel Changes\"; \"November at the Projects.\"",
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            "creation": "January 1, 1944",
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        {
            "id": "455",
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            "index": "4 304/{'value': 1950, 'relation': 'eq'}",
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            "display_name": "Fred Y. Hoshiyama",
            "bio": "Nisei male. Born December 7, 1914, in Livingston, California, where parents helped to establish a farming community called the Yamato Colony. Lost father at a young age, and moved to San Francisco, California, before World War II, and attended Berkeley. After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, was removed to the Tanforan Assembly Center, California, and the Topaz concentration camp, Utah. While in camp, worked to organize YMCA programs for Japanese American youths. Left camp early to attend Springfield College in Massachusetts. Began a lifelong career with the YMCA, notably developing NYPUM (National Youth Program Using Mini-Bikes), a program aimed at engaging high-risk youth in productive activities."
        },
        {
            "id": "140",
            "model": "narrator",
            "index": "5 305/{'value': 1950, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://ddr.densho.org/narrators/140/",
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            "display_name": "Jim Hirabayashi",
            "bio": "Nisei male. Born October 30, 1926, in small town of Thomas, Washington, on family farm. Attended school in Auburn, Washington, before being removed to the Pinedale Assembly Center and Tule Lake concentration camp, California. Left camp to work in Idaho, and was subsequently joined by family. Postwar, became a social anthropologist, and later became only the second Nisei to teach at San Francisco State University. Instrumental in the struggle to establish the field of Ethnic Studies. Brother of Gordon Hirabayashi, who defied the curfew and removal orders in 1942, and was arrested, convicted, and imprisoned. Gordon Hirabayashi's conviction was vacated in 1986."
        },
        {
            "id": "139",
            "model": "narrator",
            "index": "6 306/{'value': 1950, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://ddr.densho.org/narrators/139/",
                "json": "https://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/narrator/139/",
                "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/narrators/khiroshi.jpg",
                "thumb": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/narrators/khiroshi.jpg",
                "interviews": "https://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/narrator/139/interviews/"
            },
            "display_name": "Hiroshi Kashiwagi",
            "bio": "Nisei male. Born November 8, 1922, in Sacramento, California. Spent childhood and adolescence in Loomis, California, before spending senior year in high school in Los Angeles, California. After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, removed to Marysville Assembly Center, California, and then to Tule Lake concentration camp, California. Resisted the draft and renounced U.S. citizenship, remaining with family in Tule Lake when it was designated a \"segregation center.\" Left camp to attend college in California. Working with Wayne Collins after World War II, was able to get U.S. citizenship reinstated in the 1950s. Worked for the San Francisco public library post-World War II. A playwright and actor, Mr. Kashiwagi has performed in many stage productions and has written several plays, including Laughter and False Teeth and Betrayed."
        },
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            "id": "ddr-densho-1000-275",
            "model": "entity",
            "index": "7 307/{'value': 1950, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://ddr.densho.org/ddr-densho-1000-275/",
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                "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-hfred_2-01-a.jpg",
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            "title": "Fred Y. Hoshiyama Interview",
            "description": "Nisei male. Born December 7, 1914, in Livingston, California, where parents helped to establish a farming community called the Yamato Colony. Lost father at a young age, and moved to San Francisco, California, before World War II, and attended Berkeley. After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, was removed to the Tanforan Assembly Center, California, and the Topaz concentration camp, Utah. While in camp, worked to organize YMCA programs for Japanese American youths. Left camp early to attend Springfield College in Massachusetts. Began a lifelong career with the YMCA, notably developing NYPUM (National Youth Program Using Mini-Bikes), a program aimed at engaging high-risk youth in productive activities.<p>(This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the Interior.)",
            "extent": "03:03:26",
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                    "role": "narrator",
                    "oh_id": 455,
                    "namepart": "Fred Y. Hoshiyama"
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                    "role": "interviewer",
                    "namepart": "Tom Ikeda"
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                    "role": "videographer",
                    "namepart": "Dana Hoshide"
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                    "nr_id": "88922/nr0126h22",
                    "namepart": "Hoshiyama, Fred Yachio"
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            "rights": "cc",
            "genre": "interview",
            "location": "Culver City, California",
            "creation": "February 25, 2010",
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            "id": "ddr-densho-1021-2",
            "model": "entity",
            "index": "8 308/{'value': 1950, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
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            "title": "Geri Handa Interview",
            "description": "Geri Handa was born in San Jose, California, in 1948, and studied in the early 1970s at the School of Social Welfare at the University of California, Los Angeles, with a focus on community organizing and social services for seniors. She joined Asians for Community Actions in San Jose and worked at Keiro Nursing Home in Los Angeles while she was still attending the school. In the early 1980s, Handa became involved with Friends of Hibakusha, a group created in support of US survivors of the atomic bombings. Since then, she has been one of the most active members of the organization. A Sansei, Handa has worked with Sansei lawyers and attorneys who took interest in US hibakusha from civil rights viewpoints, including Donald K. Tamaki whose oral history is part of this collection. She has worked with representatives of the Asian Law Alliances, the Asian Law Caucus, and the Japanese American Citizens League, in order to secure US government's recognition of US survivors. Although their effort ultimately failed, Handa says that it is \"remarkable\" that US survivors gained recognition and support for treating their radiation illnesses from the Japanese government. She has been a key organizer of the medical checkups conducted by Japanese physicians in San Francisco every other year since 1977. Throughout the interview, Handa emphasizes the importance of community engagement, multiculturalism, and lasting connections made through her work for US hibakusha.",
            "extent": "1:20:21",
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                    "role": "narrator",
                    "oh_id": 964,
                    "namepart": "Geri Handa"
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                {
                    "role": "interviewer",
                    "namepart": "Naoko Wake"
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            "language": [
                "eng"
            ],
            "contributor": "Densho",
            "rights": "cc",
            "genre": "interview",
            "location": "San Francisco, California",
            "creation": "20-Jul-11",
            "status": "completed",
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            "id": "31",
            "model": "narrator",
            "index": "9 309/{'value': 1950, 'relation': 'eq'}",
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            "display_name": "Ryo Imamura",
            "bio": "Sansei male, born April 28, 1944, in the Gila River concentration camp, Arizona. His father was the late Rev. Kanmo Imamura, a former Bishop of Hawaii and a minister for the Hawaii Kyodan and the Buddhist Churches of America (BCA). His mother Jane Imamura composed many of the children's gathas sung in the Dharma Schools. Both of his grandfathers were Issei ministers, who were instrumental in bringing Jodo Shin Buddhism to America at the beginning of the century. His paternal grandfather was Bishop Yemyo Imamura of the Hawaii Kyodan. And his maternal grandfather was Rev. Issei Matsuura of the Buddhist Churches of America. He received a Bachelor's degree in Mathematics from the University of California at Berkeley, a Master's degree in Counseling from the San Francisco State University, and a Doctorate degree in Counseling Psychology from the University of San Francisco. He received the tokudo and kyoshi ordinations in Kyoto in 1971-2 after which he was a minister for the Hawaii Kyodan and director of the Buddhist Study Center for 4 years and a BCA minister for 11 years. Before moving to Washington in 1988, he was a psychotherapist in California and co-founder of the East-West Counseling Center. Currently he is a professor of Psychology at The Evergreen State College in Olympia, Washington. The focus of his teaching and research is East-West Psychology with an emphasis on Buddhist thought and practice."
        },
        {
            "id": "ddr-csujad-5-153",
            "model": "entity",
            "index": "10 310/{'value': 1950, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
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            "title": "Letter from Masao Okine to Mr. and Mrs. S. Okine, July 27, 1946 [in Japanese]",
            "description": "A letter from Masao Okine, who is stationed in Tokyo, Japan as a Nisei solder, to his parents, Seiichi and Tomeyo Okine. The letter is mailed via San Francisco, California, by U.S. Army Postal Service. In the letter, Masao writes about his duties driving a jeep and informs that he is going to mail his parents' letters to Mr. Jokichi Yamanaka and Mr. Kamekichi Nakano in Japan. He also encloses a money order of 50 dollars for his parents' necessities. The handwritten notes on the backside of the envelope record: The letter arrived on July 31, 1946; replied on August 5, 1946; received the 50 dollars on August 3, 1946; and Masao's luggage arrived on August 5, 1946 [in Japanese]. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: <a href=\"http://cdm16855.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p16855coll4/id/6787\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener noreferrer\">oki_02_03_001</a>",
            "extent": "2 pages, 7.75 x 10.75 inches, handwritten; 1 envelope",
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                    "role": "author",
                    "namepart": "Okine, Masao"
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            "topics": [
                {
                    "term": "Identity and values -- Nisei",
                    "id": "44"
                },
                {
                    "term": "Identity and values -- Family",
                    "id": "46"
                },
                {
                    "term": "Military service -- Postwar occupation of Japan",
                    "id": "199"
                },
                {
                    "term": "World War II -- Military service -- Military Intelligence Service",
                    "id": "91"
                },
                {
                    "term": "Japan -- Post-World War II",
                    "id": "165"
                }
            ],
            "format": "doc",
            "language": [
                "jpn"
            ],
            "contributor": "CSU Dominguez Hills Department of Archives and Special Collections",
            "rights": "nocc",
            "genre": "correspondence",
            "location": "Tokyo, Japan",
            "creation": "7/27/1946",
            "status": "completed",
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        {
            "id": "ddr-pc-31-16",
            "model": "entity",
            "index": "11 311/{'value': 1950, 'relation': 'eq'}",
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            },
            "title": "Pacific Citizen, Vol. 48, No. 16 (April 17, 1959)",
            "description": "Selected article titles: \"Yen debt claimants seeking pre-war exchange rate\" (p. 1), \"Cal. FEPC bill signature by governor due\" (p. 1), \"442nd RCT linked with famous U.S. Army regiments of history\" (p. 1), \"Nisei greeted as 5-millionth visitor of United Nations\" (p. 1), \"Fair housing bill in Minnesota reported\" (p. 1), \"'Nothing in common' between language of Japan and China except for orthography\" (p. 2), \"Arizona alien land law repeal eyed by JACLers\" (p. 3), \"United organization of youth groups seen as function for San Francisco Jr. JACL\" (p. 4), \"Town Hall format proves stimulating as nine speakers analyze Nisei in community\" (p. 4), \"Private schools exempt from California civil rights law\" (p. 8), \"Statehood brings new challenges to Nisei, Michener tells 442nd veterans at fete\" (p. 8).",
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            "links_children": "ddr-pc-31-16",
            "creators": [
                {
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                    "namepart": "Japanese American Citizens League"
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            ],
            "topics": [
                {
                    "term": "Journalism and media -- Community publications -- Pacific Citizen",
                    "id": "389"
                },
                {
                    "term": "Community activities -- Associations and organizations -- The Japanese American Citizens League",
                    "id": "20"
                },
                {
                    "term": "Activism and involvement -- Civil rights",
                    "id": "234"
                },
                {
                    "term": "Race and racism -- Discrimination",
                    "id": "37"
                },
                {
                    "term": "World War II -- Economic losses",
                    "id": "59"
                }
            ],
            "format": "doc",
            "language": [
                "eng"
            ],
            "persons": [
                {
                    "namepart": "Mimbu, William J."
                },
                {
                    "namepart": "Koshio, Floyd"
                },
                {
                    "namepart": "Sugiyama, George S."
                },
                {
                    "namepart": "Higuchi, Tak"
                },
                {
                    "namepart": "Yamamoto, Kakutaro"
                },
                {
                    "namepart": "Yoshimura, Akiji"
                },
                {
                    "namepart": "Honda, Harry K."
                },
                {
                    "namepart": "Takata, Fred"
                },
                {
                    "namepart": "Satow, Masao"
                },
                {
                    "namepart": "Suzukida, Berry"
                },
                {
                    "namepart": "Fukiage, Eddie"
                },
                {
                    "namepart": "Shimizu, Sydney Hiroko"
                },
                {
                    "namepart": "Tajiri, Larry S."
                },
                {
                    "namepart": "Fujii, Ken"
                },
                {
                    "namepart": "Nomiya, Fred"
                },
                {
                    "namepart": "Varnauchi, Linda"
                },
                {
                    "namepart": "Kono, Gene"
                },
                {
                    "namepart": "Sakamoto, Shig"
                },
                {
                    "namepart": "Kobata, Jo Ann"
                },
                {
                    "namepart": "Takei, Eddie"
                },
                {
                    "namepart": "Suyehira, Yaeko"
                },
                {
                    "namepart": "Iwai, Robert H."
                },
                {
                    "namepart": "Mori, Henry"
                },
                {
                    "namepart": "Masaoka, Mike"
                },
                {
                    "namepart": "Sugiyama, Frank"
                },
                {
                    "namepart": "Uchida, Henry"
                },
                {
                    "namepart": "Doi, Tom"
                },
                {
                    "namepart": "Uyehara, Otta A."
                },
                {
                    "namepart": "Osaki, Tom"
                },
                {
                    "namepart": "Shimasaki, Tom"
                }
            ],
            "contributor": "Densho",
            "rights": "cc",
            "genre": "periodical",
            "location": "Los Angeles, California",
            "creation": "April 17, 1959",
            "status": "completed",
            "search_hidden": "Japanese American Citizens League publisher Mimbu, William J. \nKoshio, Floyd \nSugiyama, George S. \nHiguchi, Tak \nYamamoto, Kakutaro \nYoshimura, Akiji \nHonda, Harry K. \nTakata, Fred \nSatow, Masao \nSuzukida, Berry \nFukiage, Eddie \nShimizu, Sydney Hiroko \nTajiri, Larry S. \nFujii, Ken \nNomiya, Fred \nVarnauchi, Linda \nKono, Gene \nSakamoto, Shig \nKobata, Jo Ann \nTakei, Eddie \nSuyehira, Yaeko \nIwai, Robert H. \nMori, Henry \nMasaoka, Mike \nSugiyama, Frank \nUchida, Henry \nDoi, Tom \nUyehara, Otta A. \nOsaki, Tom \nShimasaki, Tom",
            "download_large": "ddr-pc-31-16-mezzanine-7365ece36f-a.jpg"
        },
        {
            "id": "ddr-csujad-27-2",
            "model": "entity",
            "index": "12 312/{'value': 1950, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://ddr.densho.org/ddr-csujad-27-2/",
                "json": "https://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-csujad-27-2/",
                "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-csujad-27/ddr-csujad-27-2-mezzanine-22a8d693c8-a.jpg",
                "thumb": "http://ddrmedia.local/media/ddr-csujad-27/ddr-csujad-27-2-mezzanine-22a8d693c8-a.jpg"
            },
            "title": "The ship \"Marine Lynx\" in San Francisco Bay awaiting the arrival of more than 200 Indonesian seamen for deportation to Dutch East Indies",
            "description": "Caption found with the image reads, \"'Marine Lynx' resting peacefully at anchor in San Francisco Bay awaiting arrival of more than 200 Indonesian seamen, for deportation to Dutch East Indies. Most of them had been in custody at New York awaiting the sailing of some vessel from the West Coast. They had arrived in Atlantic Ports as seamen aboard British and Dutch vessels but would noton [sic] Dutch or British vessels. Having refused to said out [sic] they were in this country illegally and merely awaiting the cessation of hostilities so that arrangements could be made for their deportation.\" See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: <a href=\"http://cdm16855.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p16855coll4/id/7892\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener noreferrer\">ind_01_01_001</a>",
            "extent": "black and white, 7.5 x 10 inches",
            "links_children": "ddr-csujad-27-2",
            "topics": [
                {
                    "term": "Geographic communities -- California -- San Francisco",
                    "id": "273"
                },
                {
                    "term": "World War II -- Resistance and dissidence -- Expatriation/repatriation/deportation",
                    "id": "107"
                }
            ],
            "format": "img",
            "language": [
                "eng"
            ],
            "contributor": "CSU Dominguez Hills Department of Archives and Special Collections",
            "rights": "nocc",
            "genre": "photograph",
            "location": "San Francisco, California",
            "creation": "1947",
            "status": "completed",
            "search_hidden": "",
            "download_large": "ddr-csujad-27-2-mezzanine-22a8d693c8-a.jpg"
        },
        {
            "id": "ddr-densho-1002-3",
            "model": "entity",
            "index": "13 313/{'value': 1950, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://ddr.densho.org/ddr-densho-1002-3/",
                "json": "https://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-densho-1002-3/",
                "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1002/denshovh-bernest-01-a.jpg",
                "thumb": "http://ddrmedia.local/media/ddr-densho-1002/denshovh-bernest-01-a.jpg"
            },
            "title": "Ernest Besig Interview",
            "description": "White male. Born in May 30, 1904, in Albany, New York. Founder and Executive Director of the American Civil Liberties Union of Northern California from 1934 to 1971. Fought for civil rights throughout his career, and was involved in the General Strike in San Francisco, the McCarthy Era, and the Free Speech, civil rights, and anti-war movements. Represented Fred Korematsu in 1942 in his case against the United States government.<p>(This interview was conducted by sisters Emiko and Chizuko Omori for their 1999 documentary,<i> Rabbit in the Moon</i>, about the Japanese American resisters of conscience in the World War II incarceration camps. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing on issues surrounding the resistance movement itself.)",
            "extent": "01:07:17",
            "links_children": "ddr-densho-1002-3",
            "creators": [
                {
                    "role": "narrator",
                    "oh_id": 138,
                    "namepart": "Ernest Besig"
                },
                {
                    "role": "interviewer",
                    "namepart": "Chizu Omori"
                },
                {
                    "role": "interviewer",
                    "namepart": "Emiko Omori"
                },
                {
                    "role": "videographer",
                    "namepart": "Emiko Omori and Witt Mons"
                }
            ],
            "format": "vh",
            "language": [
                "eng"
            ],
            "contributor": "Emiko and Chizuko Omori Collection",
            "rights": "cc",
            "genre": "interview",
            "location": "San Francisco, California",
            "creation": "October 1, 1992",
            "status": "completed",
            "search_hidden": "Ernest Besig narrator \nChizu Omori interviewer \nEmiko Omori interviewer \nEmiko Omori and Witt Mons videographer",
            "download_large": "denshovh-bernest-01-a.jpg"
        },
        {
            "id": "ddr-csujad-5-163",
            "model": "entity",
            "index": "14 314/{'value': 1950, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://ddr.densho.org/ddr-csujad-5-163/",
                "json": "https://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-csujad-5-163/",
                "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-csujad-5/ddr-csujad-5-163-mezzanine-41249120cc-a.jpg",
                "thumb": "http://ddrmedia.local/media/ddr-csujad-5/ddr-csujad-5-163-mezzanine-41249120cc-a.jpg"
            },
            "title": "Letter from Jokichi Yamanaka to Mr. and Mrs. S. Okine, September 5, 1946 [in Japanese]",
            "description": "A letter from Jokichi Yamanaka in Hiroshima, Japan to his brother-in-law and sister-in-law, Seiichi and Tomeyo Okine. Jokichi writes about Masao Okine's visit to his place in Hiroshima, Japan and Masao's bringing the gifts from Seiichi and Tomeyo with him. He also writes of Masao's updates on issues in Hollister, California, where Jokichi used to run a business, \"Hollister Seed Co.,\"selling and trading vegetable seeds. He also writes about the difficult living conditions in Japan. He wishes to meet Seiichi and Tomeyo again but assumes that it is impossible. This letter is mailed by Masao Okine via San Francisco. On the back of the envelope, Seiichi records the arrival date of the letter, September 13, 1946, and also notes that it is the last letter from Mr. Jokichi Yamanaka. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: <a href=\"http://cdm16855.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p16855coll4/id/6848\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener noreferrer\">oki_02_14_001</a>",
            "extent": "1 page, 11 x 8.5 inches, handwritten; 1 envelope",
            "links_children": "ddr-csujad-5-163",
            "creators": [
                {
                    "role": "author",
                    "namepart": "Yamanaka, Jokichi"
                }
            ],
            "topics": [
                {
                    "term": "Japan -- Post-World War II",
                    "id": "165"
                },
                {
                    "term": "Industry and employment -- Agriculture",
                    "id": "6"
                },
                {
                    "term": "Identity and values -- Issei",
                    "id": "43"
                }
            ],
            "format": "doc",
            "language": [
                "jpn"
            ],
            "contributor": "CSU Dominguez Hills Department of Archives and Special Collections",
            "rights": "nocc",
            "genre": "correspondence",
            "location": "Hiroshima, Japan",
            "creation": "9/5/1946",
            "status": "completed",
            "search_hidden": "Yamanaka, Jokichi author",
            "download_large": "ddr-csujad-5-163-mezzanine-41249120cc-a.jpg"
        },
        {
            "id": "ddr-csujad-48-62",
            "model": "entity",
            "index": "15 315/{'value': 1950, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://ddr.densho.org/ddr-csujad-48-62/",
                "json": "https://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-csujad-48-62/",
                "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-csujad-48/ddr-csujad-48-62-mezzanine-f03b5e470e-a.jpg",
                "thumb": "http://ddrmedia.local/media/ddr-csujad-48/ddr-csujad-48-62-mezzanine-f03b5e470e-a.jpg"
            },
            "title": "Manzanar from the inside",
            "description": "Text of address by Roy Nash, Director of the Manzanar War Relocation Project, given to the Commonwealth Club of California, San Francisco, on July 31, 1942 for the purpose of \"interpret[ing] the actuality of a War Relocation Center housing 10,000 evacuees\" in view of perceptions of mistreatment of incarcerees in California. Sections of the speech include Housing, with discussion of \"aliens and citizens,\" jobs and skills, health care, food, water, and sanitation; Education; Block Leaders; Law and Order; Military Police; What Freedom at Manzanar, describing incarcerees' rights to publish their own newspaper, to receive news and to send and receive mail, to worship (except for \"Shinyoism,\" which is \"barred\"), and to engage in community cooperatives; and Manzanar Rumors, in which Nash mentions reports of discontent and distress before stating that incarcerees' morale is generally excellent, as evidenced by displays of American pride and offers of military service. Transcription is available in item: ecm_wells_9062. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: <a href=\"\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener noreferrer\">ecm_wells_0062</a>",
            "extent": "13 pages, 10.5 x 8 inches, typescript",
            "links_children": "ddr-csujad-48-62",
            "creators": [
                {
                    "role": "author",
                    "namepart": "Nash, Roy"
                }
            ],
            "topics": [
                {
                    "term": "World War II -- Concentration camps",
                    "id": "65"
                },
                {
                    "term": "World War II -- Administration -- War Relocation Authority (WRA)",
                    "id": "403"
                },
                {
                    "term": "World War II -- Concentration camps -- Arts and literature",
                    "id": "172"
                },
                {
                    "term": "World War II -- Concentration camps -- Education",
                    "id": "73"
                },
                {
                    "term": "World War II -- Concentration camps -- Facilities, services, and camp administration",
                    "id": "69"
                },
                {
                    "term": "World War II -- Concentration camps -- Food",
                    "id": "68"
                },
                {
                    "term": "World War II -- Concentration camps -- Living conditions",
                    "id": "67"
                },
                {
                    "term": "World War II -- Concentration camps -- Living conditions",
                    "id": "67"
                },
                {
                    "term": "World War II -- Concentration camps -- Medical care and health issues",
                    "id": "70"
                },
                {
                    "term": "World War II -- Concentration camps -- Publications",
                    "id": "74"
                },
                {
                    "term": "World War II -- Concentration camps -- Religion",
                    "id": "75"
                },
                {
                    "term": "World War II -- Concentration camps -- Social and recreational activities",
                    "id": "195"
                },
                {
                    "term": "World War II -- Concentration camps -- Work and jobs",
                    "id": "76"
                }
            ],
            "format": "doc",
            "language": [
                "eng"
            ],
            "contributor": "Eastern California Museum",
            "rights": "nocc",
            "genre": "misc_document",
            "location": "Manzanar, California",
            "facility": [
                {
                    "term": "Manzanar",
                    "id": "7"
                }
            ],
            "creation": "7/31/1942",
            "status": "completed",
            "search_hidden": "Nash, Roy author",
            "download_large": "ddr-csujad-48-62-mezzanine-f03b5e470e-a.jpg"
        },
        {
            "id": "ddr-densho-1009-3",
            "model": "entity",
            "index": "16 316/{'value': 1950, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://ddr.densho.org/ddr-densho-1009-3/",
                "json": "https://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-densho-1009-3/",
                "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1009/denshovh-mcharlie_g-01-a.jpg",
                "thumb": "http://ddrmedia.local/media/ddr-densho-1009/denshovh-mcharlie_g-01-a.jpg"
            },
            "title": "Charlie Matsubara - Mary Matsubara - Evelyn Togami Interview",
            "description": "This interview was conducted with husband and wife Charlie and Mary Matsubara, and Mary's sister Evelyn Togami. Charlie was born June 3, 1920, in San Francisco, California. Mary was born January 3, 1922, in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Evelyn was born December 9, 1920, in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Mary and Evelyn were living in California with their family when World War II broke out, and the family decided to caravan with several other Japanese American families back to New Mexico, where they remained throughout the war. Charlie was living in Los Angeles when the war started, and he and his brother stayed behind in California to settle property and belongings while the rest of the family moved to Albuquerque to avoid incarceration. Charlie and his brother were sent to the Manzanar concentration camp, California. Charlie eventually left camp to join his family in New Mexico.<p>(This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the Interior.)",
            "extent": "02:13:27",
            "links_children": "ddr-densho-1009-3",
            "creators": [
                {
                    "role": "narrator",
                    "oh_id": 826,
                    "namepart": "Charlie Matsubara"
                },
                {
                    "role": "narrator",
                    "oh_id": 827,
                    "namepart": "Mary Matsubara"
                },
                {
                    "role": "narrator",
                    "oh_id": 828,
                    "namepart": "Evelyn Togami"
                },
                {
                    "role": "interviewer",
                    "namepart": "Danielle Corcoran"
                }
            ],
            "format": "vh",
            "language": [
                "eng"
            ],
            "persons": [
                {
                    "nr_id": "88922/nr009ps8p",
                    "namepart": "Matsubara, Charles Saburo"
                }
            ],
            "contributor": "New Mexico JACL Collection",
            "rights": "cc",
            "genre": "interview",
            "location": "Albuquerque, New Mexico",
            "creation": "May 28, 2012",
            "status": "completed",
            "search_hidden": "Charlie Matsubara narrator \nMary Matsubara narrator \nEvelyn Togami narrator \nDanielle Corcoran interviewer Matsubara, Charles Saburo 88922nr009ps8p",
            "download_large": "denshovh-mcharlie_g-01-a.jpg"
        },
        {
            "id": "ddr-csujad-5-189",
            "model": "entity",
            "index": "17 317/{'value': 1950, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://ddr.densho.org/ddr-csujad-5-189/",
                "json": "https://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-csujad-5-189/",
                "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-csujad-5/ddr-csujad-5-189-mezzanine-7056cbc0a1-a.jpg",
                "thumb": "http://ddrmedia.local/media/ddr-csujad-5/ddr-csujad-5-189-mezzanine-7056cbc0a1-a.jpg"
            },
            "title": "Letter from Masao Okine to Mr. and Mrs. S. Okine, March 30, 1946, [in Japanese]",
            "description": "A letter from Masao Okine to his parents, Seiichi and Tomeyo Okine. He writes from Japan where he is stationed as a Nisei soldier. In the letter, he writes about his duties in Japan, driving a truck. He also writes about the illness of his brother, Makoto, who is also stationed in Italy as a Nisei soldier. He informs that he has been trying to help his father to receive the military family allowance which Seiichi Okine has not received since they moved out from the camp. The letter is mailed via San Francisco by the U.S. Army Postal Service. The arrival date, Aprils 10, 1946, is recorded. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: <a href=\"http://cdm16855.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p16855coll4/id/13874\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener noreferrer\">oki_02_33_001</a>",
            "extent": "3 pages, 10 x 6.75 inches, handwritten; 1 envelope",
            "links_children": "ddr-csujad-5-189",
            "creators": [
                {
                    "role": "author",
                    "namepart": "Okine, Masao"
                }
            ],
            "topics": [
                {
                    "term": "World War II -- Military service -- Military Intelligence Service",
                    "id": "91"
                },
                {
                    "term": "Military service -- Postwar occupation of Japan",
                    "id": "199"
                },
                {
                    "term": "World War II -- Military service -- 442nd Regimental Combat Team",
                    "id": "89"
                },
                {
                    "term": "Identity and values -- Family",
                    "id": "46"
                },
                {
                    "term": "Identity and values -- Nisei",
                    "id": "44"
                }
            ],
            "format": "doc",
            "language": [
                "jpn"
            ],
            "contributor": "CSU Dominguez Hills Department of Archives and Special Collections",
            "rights": "nocc",
            "genre": "correspondence",
            "location": "Japan",
            "creation": "3/30/1946",
            "status": "completed",
            "search_hidden": "Okine, Masao author",
            "download_large": "ddr-csujad-5-189-mezzanine-7056cbc0a1-a.jpg"
        },
        {
            "id": "964",
            "model": "narrator",
            "index": "18 318/{'value': 1950, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://ddr.densho.org/narrators/964/",
                "json": "https://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/narrator/964/",
                "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/narrators/ddr-densho-1021-2_narr.jpg",
                "thumb": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/narrators/ddr-densho-1021-2_narr.jpg",
                "interviews": "https://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/narrator/964/interviews/"
            },
            "display_name": "Geri Handa",
            "bio": "Geri Handa was born in San Jose, California, in 1948, and studied in the early 1970s at the School of Social Welfare at the University of California, Los Angeles, with a focus on community organizing and social services for seniors. She joined Asians for Community Actions in San Jose and worked at Keiro Nursing Home in Los Angeles while she was still attending the school. In the early 1980s, Handa became involved with Friends of Hibakusha, a group created in support of US survivors of the atomic bombings. Since then, she has been one of the most active members of the organization. A Sansei, Handa has worked with Sansei lawyers and attorneys who took interest in US hibakusha from civil rights viewpoints, including Donald K. Tamaki whose oral history is part of this collection. She has worked with representatives of the Asian Law Alliances, the Asian Law Caucus, and the Japanese American Citizens League, in order to secure US government's recognition of US survivors. Although their effort ultimately failed, Handa says that it is \"remarkable\" that US survivors gained recognition and support for treating their radiation illnesses from the Japanese government. She has been a key organizer of the medical checkups conducted by Japanese physicians in San Francisco every other year since 1977. Throughout the interview, Handa emphasizes the importance of community engagement, multiculturalism, and lasting connections made through her work for US hibakusha."
        },
        {
            "id": "120",
            "model": "narrator",
            "index": "19 319/{'value': 1950, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://ddr.densho.org/narrators/120/",
                "json": "https://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/narrator/120/",
                "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/narrators/ttomiye.jpg",
                "thumb": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/narrators/ttomiye.jpg",
                "interviews": "https://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/narrator/120/interviews/"
            },
            "display_name": "Tomiye Terasaki",
            "bio": "Kibei female. Born October 5, 1910, in San Francisco, California. At age three, sent to live with grandfather and receive education in Fukuoka, Japan. After high school, temporarily moved to Tokyo and assisted family-owned business. In 1929, returned to U.S. to join parents in Sacramento. After arranged marriage to Mr. Tadao Sakita, moved to Los Angeles, raised three children and jointly ran a successful cafe. Returned to Sacramento after the bombing of Pearl Harbor to be with family in 1942, until all persons of Japanese ancestry were removed from West Coast. Gave birth to a son while at Tule Lake concentration camp, California. After the war, returned to Los Angeles, and converted to Christianity. Remarried to Mr. Terasaki after first husband's death. At the time of the interview, Mrs. Terasaki resided in Los Angeles, making and repairing Japanese calligraphy scrolls."
        },
        {
            "id": "ddr-csujad-5-186",
            "model": "entity",
            "index": "20 320/{'value': 1950, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://ddr.densho.org/ddr-csujad-5-186/",
                "json": "https://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-csujad-5-186/",
                "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-csujad-5/ddr-csujad-5-186-mezzanine-f636977192-a.jpg",
                "thumb": "http://ddrmedia.local/media/ddr-csujad-5/ddr-csujad-5-186-mezzanine-f636977192-a.jpg"
            },
            "title": "Letter from Masao Okine to Mr. and Mrs. S. Okine, May 19, 1946 [in Japanese]",
            "description": "A letter from Masao Okine to his parents, Seiichi and Tomeyo Okine. He writes from Japan where he is stationed as a Nisei solder. The letter is mailed via San Francisco by the U. S. Army Postal Service. In the letter, he informs that he has received letters from his sister, Hatsuno, his wife, Ayame, and his brother, Makoto, and met his brother-in-law, Nobuyuki Tanimoto, and everyone is being well. He assumes that they do not have enough coal in larger cities, such as Chicago and Los Angeles, but they would be restored soon. He encloses photographs that he has taken during his visit in Hiroshima. The photographs are not found in the item. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: <a href=\"http://cdm16855.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p16855coll4/id/13862\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener noreferrer\">oki_02_31_001</a>",
            "extent": "3 pages, 6 x 9 inches, handwritten; 1 envelope",
            "links_children": "ddr-csujad-5-186",
            "creators": [
                {
                    "role": "author",
                    "namepart": "Okine, Masao"
                }
            ],
            "topics": [
                {
                    "term": "Military service -- Postwar occupation of Japan",
                    "id": "199"
                },
                {
                    "term": "World War II -- Military service -- Military Intelligence Service",
                    "id": "91"
                },
                {
                    "term": "Identity and values -- Family",
                    "id": "46"
                },
                {
                    "term": "Identity and values -- Nisei",
                    "id": "44"
                }
            ],
            "format": "doc",
            "language": [
                "jpn"
            ],
            "contributor": "CSU Dominguez Hills Department of Archives and Special Collections",
            "rights": "nocc",
            "genre": "correspondence",
            "location": "Japan",
            "creation": "5/19/1946",
            "status": "completed",
            "search_hidden": "Okine, Masao author",
            "download_large": "ddr-csujad-5-186-mezzanine-f636977192-a.jpg"
        },
        {
            "id": "ddr-densho-37-753",
            "model": "entity",
            "index": "21 321/{'value': 1950, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://ddr.densho.org/ddr-densho-37-753/",
                "json": "https://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-densho-37-753/",
                "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-37/ddr-densho-37-753-mezzanine-0610d6335b-a.jpg",
                "thumb": "http://ddrmedia.local/media/ddr-densho-37/ddr-densho-37-753-mezzanine-0610d6335b-a.jpg"
            },
            "title": "Nisei soldier with family",
            "description": "Original WRA caption: Former S. Sgt. Henry H Gosho, Mrs. Gosho (seated) and their eighteen month-old daughter Carol Jeanne are shown with a few of the new Yorkers who attended a dinner in his honor on September 12, 1945, at the Toyo Kwan Restaurant in New York City under the auspices of the new York Chapter of the JACL. From left to right the other are: Mrs. Ruth Shinno (kneeling) formerly of Wilmington, California, and the Jerome Relocation Center; and the Misses Toshiko Kako, of Denver and San Francisco; Nellie Mayeda, of the Gila River Relocation Center and Visalia, California; and Louise Takahashi of Central Utah Relocation Center and Los Angeles. Sgt. Gosho was awarded a Presidential Unit Citation, Bronze Star, the Pacific Ribbon with three campaign stars and the Combat Infantryman's Badge during sixteen months service in the Burma-India theater with Army Combat Intelligence of Merrill's Marauders.  A former resident of Seattle, Washington, he relocated to New York City in August 1945 from the Minidoka Relocation Center with his wife and baby daughter Carol Jeanne.",
            "links_children": "ddr-densho-37-753",
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            "contributor": "Densho",
            "rights": "pdm",
            "genre": "photograph",
            "location": "New York, New York",
            "creation": "September 12, 1945",
            "status": "completed",
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        {
            "id": "ddr-csujad-27-3",
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            "index": "22 322/{'value': 1950, 'relation': 'eq'}",
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                "html": "https://ddr.densho.org/ddr-csujad-27-3/",
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                "thumb": "http://ddrmedia.local/media/ddr-csujad-27/ddr-csujad-27-3-mezzanine-c095e1f8c4-a.jpg"
            },
            "title": "Indonesian seamen at an immigration detention center in downtown San Francisco",
            "description": "Caption found with the image reads, \"Just before sailing time, the Immigration Service and the ship's captain were served with an order from the U.S. District Court to the effect that petition for a writ of habeas corpus had been filed on behalf of the Indonesians, claiming they would receive 'certain imprisonment and probable death' upon reaching Batavia, Dutch East Indies, for having refused to sail ships of British or Dutch registry during the war. This made it necessary to take the more than 200 Indonesians and their hand baggage from the ship to the Immigration quarters in downtown San Francisco for detention until the Court ruled on the application for the writ. In this photograph the Indonesians are being taken by elevator to the 13th floor of the immigration building.\" See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: <a href=\"http://cdm16855.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p16855coll4/id/7893\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener noreferrer\">ind_01_01_005</a>",
            "extent": "black and white, 7.5 x 10 inches",
            "links_children": "ddr-csujad-27-3",
            "topics": [
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                    "term": "Geographic communities -- California -- San Francisco",
                    "id": "273"
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                {
                    "term": "World War II -- Resistance and dissidence -- Expatriation/repatriation/deportation",
                    "id": "107"
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            "contributor": "CSU Dominguez Hills Department of Archives and Special Collections",
            "rights": "nocc",
            "genre": "photograph",
            "location": "San Francisco, California",
            "creation": "1947",
            "status": "completed",
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            "index": "23 323/{'value': 1950, 'relation': 'eq'}",
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                "thumb": "http://ddrmedia.local/media/ddr-csujad-5/ddr-csujad-5-148-mezzanine-da7fbc7e3e-a.jpg"
            },
            "title": "Letter from Masao Okine to Mr. and Mrs. Okine, June 10, 1946 [in Japanese]",
            "description": "A letter from Masao Okine to his parents, Seiichi and Tomeyo Okine. Masao Okine writes from Japan where he is stationed as a US Army soldier. This letter is mailed via San Francisco by the U.S. Army Postal Service. The letter includes updates, informing of the arrival of his parents' four letters written on May 20, 26, 30, and June 1 respectively and a package including tobaccos and candies, and a plan to visit Hiroshima to meet the relatives and take their pictures to send to his parents. He offers financial support to his parents, enclosing money in the letter. The handwritten notes on the backside of the envelope record the arrival date of the letter, June 15, 1946, and the replied date, June 17, 1946. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: <a href=\"http://cdm16855.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p16855coll4/id/6783\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener noreferrer\">oki_01_69_001</a>",
            "extent": "3 pages, 7.5 x 10.5 inches, handwritten; 1 envelope",
            "links_children": "ddr-csujad-5-148",
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                    "namepart": "Okine, Masao"
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            "topics": [
                {
                    "term": "Identity and values -- Nisei",
                    "id": "44"
                },
                {
                    "term": "Japan -- Post-World War II",
                    "id": "165"
                },
                {
                    "term": "Military service -- Postwar occupation of Japan",
                    "id": "199"
                },
                {
                    "term": "World War II -- Military service -- Military Intelligence Service",
                    "id": "91"
                }
            ],
            "format": "doc",
            "language": [
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            ],
            "contributor": "CSU Dominguez Hills Department of Archives and Special Collections",
            "rights": "nocc",
            "genre": "correspondence",
            "location": "Japan",
            "creation": "6/10/1946",
            "status": "completed",
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        {
            "id": "ddr-densho-1002-5",
            "model": "entity",
            "index": "24 324/{'value': 1950, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
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                "json": "https://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-densho-1002-5/",
                "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1002/denshovh-hjim-01-a.jpg",
                "thumb": "http://ddrmedia.local/media/ddr-densho-1002/denshovh-hjim-01-a.jpg"
            },
            "title": "Jim Hirabayashi Interview",
            "description": "Nisei male. Born October 30, 1926, in small town of Thomas, Washington, on family farm. Attended school in Auburn, Washington, before being removed to the Pinedale Assembly Center and Tule Lake concentration camp, California. Left camp to work in Idaho, and was subsequently joined by family. Postwar, became a social anthropologist, and later became only the second Nisei to teach at San Francisco State University. Instrumental in the struggle to establish the field of Ethnic Studies. Brother of Gordon Hirabayashi, who defied the curfew and removal orders in 1942, and was arrested, convicted, and imprisoned. Gordon Hirabayashi's conviction was vacated in 1986.<p>(This interview was conducted by sisters Emiko and Chizuko Omori for their 1999 documentary,<i> Rabbit in the Moon</i>, about the Japanese American resisters of conscience in the World War II incarceration camps. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing on issues surrounding the resistance movement itself.)",
            "extent": "01:33:56",
            "links_children": "ddr-densho-1002-5",
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                    "role": "narrator",
                    "oh_id": 140,
                    "namepart": "Jim Hirabayashi"
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                    "namepart": "Chizu Omori"
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                    "role": "interviewer",
                    "namepart": "Emiko Omori"
                },
                {
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                    "namepart": "Emiko Omori and Witt Mons"
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            ],
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            ],
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                    "namepart": "Hirabayashi, Akira James"
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            ],
            "contributor": "Emiko and Chizuko Omori Collection",
            "rights": "cc",
            "genre": "interview",
            "location": "San Francisco, California",
            "creation": "October 2, 1992",
            "status": "completed",
            "search_hidden": "Jim Hirabayashi narrator \nChizu Omori interviewer \nEmiko Omori interviewer \nEmiko Omori and Witt Mons videographer Hirabayashi, Akira James 88922nr014b913",
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