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            "title": "Etsuko Ichikawa Osaki Interview",
            "description": "Nisei female. Born February 19, 1931, in Fresno, California. Family moved to Seattle, Washington, where father became minister of the Seattle Buddhist Temple. During the war, removed to the Puyallup Assembly Center, Washington, and Minidoka concentration camp, Idaho. Transferred to the Crystal City internment camp, Texas, to be reunited with father, who was arrested by the FBI after the bombing of Pearl Harbor. After the war, returned to Seattle, where parents reestablished the Buddhist temple. Etsuko and her family eventually moved to Portland, Oregon.<p>(This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the Interior.)",
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            "display_name": "Shizuko \"Suzie\" Sakai",
            "bio": "Nisei female. Born April 14, 1922, in Yakima, Washington, and grew up in Central Washington state. During World War II, removed to the Portland Assembly Center, Oregon, and the Heart Mountain concentration camp, Wyoming. Left camp to attend college in Kansas and North Carolina. Eventually returned to the West Coast."
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            "display_name": "Miyuki Yasui",
            "bio": "Nisei female. Born September 18, 1926, in South Pasadena, California. Grew up in Los Angeles, California. During World War II, removed to the Santa Anita Assembly Center, California, and the Heart Mountain concentration camp, Wyoming. Attended college in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, after leaving camp. Eventually married and moved to Portland, Oregon."
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            "display_name": "Frances Ota",
            "bio": "Nisei female. Born January 22, 1923, in Wilsonville, Oregon. Taken to Japan to live with family for a few years before the outbreak of World War II. Returned alone to Oregon to join sister at age sixteen with the help of a white benefactor. Removed to the Portland Assembly Center, Oregon, but then left immediately to live and work at a farm labor camp and attend school with the help of the benefactor. Volunteered for military service and served with the medical corps. Lived in Salt Lake City for a time before eventually returning to Oregon."
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            "id": "559",
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            "display_name": "Pearl Yoshikawa",
            "bio": "Nisei female. Born April 25, 1926, in Vancouver, Washington. Grew up in Vancouver where parents ran a farm. During World War II, removed to the Portland Assembly Center, Oregon, and the Minidoka concentration camp, Idaho. After leaving camp, moved to New York City to attend a fashion design school. Eventually resettled in Minneapolis, Minnesota."
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            "description": "Nisei female. Born July 27, 1922, in Wapato, Washington. Grew up in Wapato, where family ran a farm. Was attending the University of Washington when the war broke out on December 7, 1941. Removed with family to the Portland Assembly Center, Oregon, and the Heart Mountain concentration camp, Wyoming. While in camp, worked for the recreation department. Left camp and attended college in St. Paul, Minnesota. After the war, became very active in the field of recreation, as well as with community and educational groups. Involved in efforts to preserve the sites of the wartime incarceration camps.<p>(This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the Interior.)",
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                    "namepart": "Tom Ikeda"
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            "location": "Culver City, California",
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            "display_name": "Shiuko Sakai",
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            "display_name": "Bob Suzuki",
            "bio": "Nisei-han male. Born January 2, 1936, in Portland, Oregon, where father worked for the railroad. During World War II, removed to the Portland Assembly Center, Oregon, and the Minidoka concentration camp, Idaho. After leaving camp, family moved to a small community outside of Spokane, Washington, to farm. Went to UC Berkeley and Caltech, then taught at the Department of Aerospace Engineering at the University of Southern California. He served as chair of the National Education Commission of the Japanese American Citizens League (JACL), and vice chair of the Community Advisory Committee for the Desegregation of the Pasadena Schools. Held several positions in academic administration including Dean of Graduate Studies and Research at California State University, Los Angeles, Vice President for Academic Affairs at California State University, Northridge, and President of California State Polytechnic University, Pomona."
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            "id": "121",
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            "display_name": "Tsuguo \"Ike\" Ikeda",
            "bio": "Nisei male. Born 1924 in Portland, Oregon. Incarcerated at the North Portland Assembly Center and Minidoka concentration camp, Idaho. Kept a diary beginning December, 1941, and through incarceration. Beginning as a teenager, was exceptionally active as a volunteer leader, first within a Japanese American church in Portland, later in camp with Federated Christian Church, school and service clubs, and throughout life.\r\n Graduated from Hunt High School and left Minidoka on indefinite work leave. Drafted in 1944; graduated from United States Military Intelligence Service Language School. After discharge, returned to Portland, Oregon, and graduated from college in 1949. One of the earliest Nisei to obtain Master of Social Work degree from University of Washington, 1951. Married, 1951, and had four children.\r\n Incarceration led him to resolve to work for social justice. In 1953, was one of the first Nisei hired as executive director of a nonprofit organization in the United States (outside the Japanese American community), and served at the Atlantic Street Center in Seattle for 33 years, leading its transformation from settlement house to social service agency. Worked to reduce racial discrimination. Promoted multi-racial, cross-cultural cooperation, equal opportunity and affirmative action in community, church, nonprofit, government and other arenas. Mentors and advises community members, including sharing a set of principles he developed based on values from his cultural heritage. Mr. Ikeda is the recipient of numerous awards, recognitions of service and honors for his professional and volunteer contributions to society."
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            "display_name": "Etsuko Ichikawa Osaki",
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            "id": "453",
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            "bio": "Nisei female. Born July 27, 1922, in Wapato, Washington. Grew up in Wapato, where family ran a farm. Was attending the University of Washington when the war broke out on December 7, 1941. Removed with family to the Portland Assembly Center, Oregon, and the Heart Mountain concentration camp, Wyoming. While in camp, worked for the recreation department. Left camp and attended college in St. Paul, Minnesota. After the war, became very active in the field of recreation, as well as with community and educational groups. Involved in efforts to preserve the sites of the wartime incarceration camps."
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            "id": "132",
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            "display_name": "Kara Kondo",
            "bio": "Nisei female. Born 1916 in the Yakima valley, Washington, and spent childhood in Wapato, Washington. Following the bombing of Pearl Harbor, removed to the North Portland Assembly Center, Oregon, and then to the Heart Mountain concentration camp, Wyoming. Was on the staff of the camp newspaper, the Heart Mountain Sentinel. Left camp for Chicago, Illinois, and lived in Pennsylvania, Kentucky and Missouri before returning to Yakima, Washington. Became involved in political organization postwar, such as the League of Women Voters. Testified before the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians during the redress movement, and became actively involved in groups addressing environmental issues."
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            "title": "Bill Hosokawa Interview",
            "description": "Nisei male. Born in Seattle on January 30, 1915, and attended Washington grade school, Garfield High School and the University of Washington. He grew up as a typical Nisei, working summers in Alaska salmon canneries and Western Avenue produce brokerages to pay for his education. He became interested in writing at Garfield where he was sports editor of the school paper. While attending the University he worked at the weekly Japanese American Courier published by the late Jimmie Sakamoto. A faculty adviser at the University urged Hosokawa to drop out of the journalism school \"because no newspaper in the country would hire a Japanese boy.\" Hosokawa rejected the advice, but when he graduated in 1937 he found the professor was right. After working as a male secretary writing letters, Hosokawa and his bride, the former Alice Miyake of Portland, Oregon, went to Singapore in 1938 to help launch an English language daily. A year and a half later Hosokawa moved to Shanghai to work on an American-owned monthly magazine, the Far Eastern Review. Then, sensing the inevitability of war, he returned to Seattle in 1941 just five weeks before the attack on Pearl Harbor. When war came, Hosokawa served as executive director of Seattle JACL's Emergency Defense Council helping people in the community to cope. He and his family were removed to the Puyallup Assembly Center, Washington. When other Seattleites were moved to Minidoka concentration camp, Idaho, Hosokawa and his wife and infant son were sent to Heart Mountain, Wyoming. Later, he learned he had been separated from his Seattle friends because he was considered a potential troublemaker. He was in Heart Mountain for 14 months, working as editor of the camp newspaper, the Heart Mountain Sentinel, before being released to join the Des Moines, Iowa Register in 1943. In 1946 he moved to Denver to work on the Denver Post. In 38 years at The Post he held such assignments as executive news editor, assistant managing editor and Sunday editor. He covered the Japanese peace treaty in San Francisco in 1951, the Summit meeting in Paris in 1960 and the Zengakuren student riots in Japan that same year. He also had assignments as war correspondent in Korea and Vietnam, and for 17 years was editor of Empire, the Post's prize-winning Sunday magazine. For his last seven years at the Post Hosokawa was editor of the editorial page -- a Japanese American imprisoned during World War II as a potential security risk who now directed the opinion section of a major American newspaper. After retiring from the Post in 1984 he served the Rocky Mountain News as ombudsman columnist for seven years. Hosokawa has taught journalism classes at the University of Colorado, University of Northern Colorado and University of Wyoming. He wrote a weekly comment column called \"From the Frying Pan\" in JACL's weekly Pacific Citizen from 1942 until 1999. Among other honors, Hosokawa is a former president of the American Association of Sunday and Feature Editors and a member of that organization's Hall of Fame, a charter member of the Denver Press Club Hall of Fame. He was named JACL's Nisei of the Biennium in 1958, and has published 12 books. Hosokawa and his wife Alice, who died in 1998, had four children.",
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            "contributor": "Frank Abe Collection",
            "rights": "cc",
            "genre": "interview",
            "location": "Salt Lake City, Utah",
            "status": "completed",
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            "title": "Bill Hosokawa Interview",
            "description": "Nisei male. Born in Seattle on January 30, 1915, and attended Washington grade school, Garfield High School and the University of Washington. He grew up as a typical Nisei, working summers in Alaska salmon canneries and Western Avenue produce brokerages to pay for his education. He became interested in writing at Garfield where he was sports editor of the school paper. While attending the University he worked at the weekly Japanese American Courier published by the late Jimmie Sakamoto. A faculty adviser at the University urged Hosokawa to drop out of the journalism school \"because no newspaper in the country would hire a Japanese boy.\" Hosokawa rejected the advice, but when he graduated in 1937 he found the professor was right. After working as a male secretary writing letters, Hosokawa and his bride, the former Alice Miyake of Portland, Oregon, went to Singapore in 1938 to help launch an English language daily. A year and a half later Hosokawa moved to Shanghai to work on an American-owned monthly magazine, the Far Eastern Review. Then, sensing the inevitability of war, he returned to Seattle in 1941 just five weeks before the attack on Pearl Harbor. When war came, Hosokawa served as executive director of Seattle JACL's Emergency Defense Council helping people in the community to cope. He and his family were removed to the Puyallup Assembly Center, Washington. When other Seattleites were moved to Minidoka concentration camp, Idaho, Hosokawa and his wife and infant son were sent to Heart Mountain, Wyoming. Later, he learned he had been separated from his Seattle friends because he was considered a potential troublemaker. He was in Heart Mountain for 14 months, working as editor of the camp newspaper, the Heart Mountain Sentinel, before being released to join the Des Moines, Iowa Register in 1943. In 1946 he moved to Denver to work on the Denver Post. In 38 years at The Post he held such assignments as executive news editor, assistant managing editor and Sunday editor. He covered the Japanese peace treaty in San Francisco in 1951, the Summit meeting in Paris in 1960 and the Zengakuren student riots in Japan that same year. He also had assignments as war correspondent in Korea and Vietnam, and for 17 years was editor of Empire, the Post's prize-winning Sunday magazine. For his last seven years at the Post Hosokawa was editor of the editorial page -- a Japanese American imprisoned during World War II as a potential security risk who now directed the opinion section of a major American newspaper. After retiring from the Post in 1984 he served the Rocky Mountain News as ombudsman columnist for seven years. Hosokawa has taught journalism classes at the University of Colorado, University of Northern Colorado and University of Wyoming. He wrote a weekly comment column called \\\"From the Frying Pan\\\" in JACL's weekly Pacific Citizen from 1942 until 1999. Among other honors, Hosokawa is a former president of the American Association of Sunday and Feature Editors and a member of that organization's Hall of Fame, a charter member of the Denver Press Club Hall of Fame. He was named JACL's Nisei of the Biennium in 1958, and has published 12 books. Hosokawa and his wife Alice, who died in 1998, had four children.",
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            "bio": "Nisei male. Born in Seattle on January 30, 1915, and attended Washington grade school, Garfield High School and the University of Washington. He grew up as a typical Nisei, working summers in Alaska salmon canneries and Western Avenue produce brokerages to pay for his education. He became interested in writing at Garfield where he was sports editor of the school paper. While attending the University he worked at the weekly Japanese American Courier published by the late Jimmie Sakamoto. A faculty adviser at the University urged Hosokawa to drop out of the journalism school \"because no newspaper in the country would hire a Japanese boy.\" Hosokawa rejected the advice, but when he graduated in 1937 he found the professor was right. After working as a male secretary writing letters, Hosokawa and his bride, the former Alice Miyake of Portland, Oregon, went to Singapore in 1938 to help launch an English language daily. A year and a half later Hosokawa moved to Shanghai to work on an American-owned monthly magazine, the Far Eastern Review. Then, sensing the inevitability of war, he returned to Seattle in 1941 just five weeks before the attack on Pearl Harbor. When war came, Hosokawa served as executive director of Seattle JACL's Emergency Defense Council helping people in the community to cope. He and his family were removed to the Puyallup Assembly Center, Washington. When other Seattleites were moved to Minidoka concentration camp, Idaho, Hosokawa and his wife and infant son were sent to Heart Mountain, Wyoming. Later, he learned he had been separated from his Seattle friends because he was considered a potential troublemaker. He was in Heart Mountain for 14 months, working as editor of the camp newspaper, the Heart Mountain Sentinel, before being released to join the Des Moines, Iowa Register in 1943. In 1946 he moved to Denver to work on the Denver Post. In 38 years at The Post he held such assignments as executive news editor, assistant managing editor and Sunday editor. He covered the Japanese peace treaty in San Francisco in 1951, the Summit meeting in Paris in 1960 and the Zengakuren student riots in Japan that same year. He also had assignments as war correspondent in Korea and Vietnam, and for 17 years was editor of Empire, the Post's prize-winning Sunday magazine. For his last seven years at the Post Hosokawa was editor of the editorial page -- a Japanese American imprisoned during World War II as a potential security risk who now directed the opinion section of a major American newspaper. After retiring from the Post in 1984 he served the Rocky Mountain News as ombudsman columnist for seven years. Hosokawa has taught journalism classes at the University of Colorado, University of Northern Colorado and University of Wyoming. He wrote a weekly comment column called \"From the Frying Pan\" in JACL's weekly Pacific Citizen from 1942 until 1999. Among other honors, Hosokawa is a former president of the American Association of Sunday and Feature Editors and a member of that organization's Hall of Fame, a charter member of the Denver Press Club Hall of Fame. He was named JACL's Nisei of the Biennium in 1958, and has published 12 books. Hosokawa and his wife Alice, who died in 1998, had four children."
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