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            "title": "Daily Press Review, Vol. V, No. 20",
            "description": "Article titles: \"Japanese Unfamiliar with Cotton Picking\"; \"Limitations of Jap Labor in Cotton Picking Are Told\"; \"Santa Anita Internees Sent On Way to Arkansas\"; \"Call for 160 Japanese Beet Workers\"; \"Work Going Ahead on Camp at Hunt\"; \"Indian Service Men at Manzanar\"; \"Japs Afraid to Go Into Beet Fields\"; \"Japanese Lads Help Get in Big Montana Beet Crop\"; \"Twenty-two Japanese Placed at Housework\"; \"More Propaganda Material\"; \"Japs From Granada Center Leave for Work in Beet Fields\"; \"Jap Test Case Opens in Los Angeles\"; \"FBI Alien Roundup in Bay Region\"; \"1,304 Aliens Arrested and Interned Since December 7\"; \"Hongkong: Six Months in a Jap Hell\"; \"32 Alien Lawbreakers are Seized in Northern California\"; \"New Bund Roundup: U.S. Opens Drive to Intern Naturalized Citizens Active in 'Dissolved' Nazi Unit\"; \"Ruling on Jap Exile Up to U.S. Court\"; \"Seven Japs Run for Office in Hawaii Elections -- 1 Wins\"; \"Jap Internees Aid in Beet Harvest.\"",
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                    "term": "World War II -- Concentration camps -- Facilities, services, and camp administration",
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            "title": "Cedrick M. Shimo Interview",
            "description": "Nisei male. Born October 1, 1919, in Heber, California, in the Imperial Valley. Grew up in Boyle Heights. Received draft notice one day after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, and joined the Military Intelligence Service. After being denied furlough to visit his mother in Manzanar concentration camp, refused to serve overseas with his unit. Was placed in the 1800 Engineering Battalion, made up of Japanese, German and Italian Americans considered \"suspect\" by the U.S. government. After World War II, became the vice president of the export division for Honda, dedicating much of his time to promoting better trade relations between the U.S. and Japan.<p>(This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the Interior.)",
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                    "namepart": "Tom Ikeda"
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                    "namepart": "Martha Nakagawa"
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                    "namepart": "Dana Hoshide"
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            "location": "Torrance, California",
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            "display_name": "Frank Kitamoto",
            "bio": "Sansei male. Born May 28, 1939, on Bainbridge Island, Washington. Incarcerated with parents at Manzanar concentration camp, California, and Minidoka concentration camp, Idaho. Returned to Bainbridge Island after end of World War II. President of the Bainbridge Island Japanese American Community (BIJAC), a community organization dedicated to the preservation of Japanese American history on Bainbridge Island."
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            "id": "602",
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            "index": "3 1278/{'value': 1306, 'relation': 'eq'}",
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            "display_name": "Masahiro Nakajo",
            "bio": "Nisei male. Born May 17, 1927, in Moneta, California. Grew up in the Garden Grove area where parents ran a farm. Was taken to Japan to live as a young child until age ten. During World War II, removed to the Manzanar concentration camp, Caliifornia. After leaving camp, served in the military during the Korean War."
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            "display_name": "Hank Shozo Umemoto",
            "bio": "Nisei male. Born October 12, 1928, in Florin, California, a small community outside of Sacramento, California. Lost father at an early age, and was raised primarily by older brother. During World War II, removed with family to the Manzanar concentration camp, California. While in camp, snuck out of camp to spend time in the surrounding hillside. After leaving camp, returned to California and finished high school. Notably, refused to accept on principle the redress payments made to Japanese Americans in the 1980s."
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            "id": "239",
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            "display_name": "Hikoji Takeuchi",
            "bio": "Nisei male. Born December 18, 1921, in Los Angeles, California. Parents owned and operated a restaurant. Father passed away prior to the onset of World War II, so mother was responsible for preparing the family to move to camp. Removed to Manzanar concentration camp, California, and in 1942, was shot by a military police officer while picking up scrap lumber. Renounced U.S. citizenship and expatriated to Japan where he worked for six years before returning to California."
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            "id": "552",
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            "display_name": "John Kats Marumoto",
            "bio": "Nisei male. Born 1927 in Terminal Island, California. Grew up on Terminal Island, where father was a fisherman. Lived in Japan for a short time in 1941. After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, moved to Compton after the Japanese Americans were excluded from Terminal Island. Removed to the Manzanar concentration camp, California. After leaving camp, worked on a fishing boat in Mexico. Drafted into the military in the 1950s and served in Japan. After the war, returned to California."
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            "display_name": "Nancy Nakata Gohata",
            "bio": "Sansei female. Born October 16, 1940, in Compton, California. As an infant, taken with family to the Manzanar concentration camp, California. After the government issued the so-called \"loyalty questionnaire,\" family was transferred to the Tule Lake concentration camp, California. After leaving camp, lived for ten years at a farm labor camp on an island outside of Stockton. Eventually ended up living in the San Fernando Valley, and became very active with the Japanese American Citizens League."
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            "id": "438",
            "model": "narrator",
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            "display_name": "George Matsumoto",
            "bio": "Nisei male. Born July 19, 1924, in San Francisco, California. At a young age, family moved to Ocean Park, California, where father ran a concession stand in an amusement park. After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, removed with family to the Manzanar concentration camp, California. While in camp, had numerous jobs, including as part of the kitchen staff. In 1943, refused to answer the so-called \"loyalty questions\" and was transferred to the Tule Lake concentration camp, California. After being released from camp, resettled in Chicago, Illinois, before returning to California."
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            "id": "626",
            "model": "narrator",
            "index": "9 1284/{'value': 1306, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
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            "display_name": "Robert A. Nakamura",
            "bio": "Nisei/Sansei male. Born July 5, 1936, in Venice, California. During World War II, removed to the Manzanar concentration camp, California. After leaving camp, lived for a time in Denver before returning to Los Angeles. After the war, became a pioneering filmmaker. Founder of Visual Communications, the oldest community-based media arts center in the United States. Along with wife Karen Ishizuka, founded the Media Arts Center of the Japanese American National Museum."
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        {
            "id": "248",
            "model": "narrator",
            "index": "10 1285/{'value': 1306, 'relation': 'eq'}",
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            "display_name": "Victor Takemoto",
            "bio": "Nisei male. Born October 27, 1926, in Bainbridge Island, Washington. Parents were strawberry farmers before World War II. After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, removed with family to Manzanar concentration camp, California. Unlike most Bainbridge Island Japanese Americans, did not transfer to the Minidoka, Idaho, concentration camp. Returned to Bainbridge Island after the war, and attended the University of Washington."
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            "id": "285",
            "model": "narrator",
            "index": "11 1286/{'value': 1306, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
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                "interviews": "http://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/narrator/285/interviews/"
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            "display_name": "Tadashi Sakuma",
            "bio": "Nisei male. Born May 20, 1913, in Hiroshima, Japan, and immigrated to the United States at the age of eleven. Lived on Bainbridge Island, Washington. During World War II, removed to the Manzanar concentration camp, California, later transferring to the Minidoka concentration camp, Idaho. After leaving camp, lived in Moses Lake, Washington, for a time before eventually returning to Bainbridge Island."
        },
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            "id": "573",
            "model": "narrator",
            "index": "12 1287/{'value': 1306, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
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                "json": "http://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/narrator/573/",
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                "interviews": "http://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/narrator/573/interviews/"
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            "display_name": "Ted Kitayama",
            "bio": "Nisei male. Born July 27, 1929, on Bainbridge Island, Washington. Grew up on Bainbridge where parents ran a nursery business. During World War II, removed to the Manzanar concentration camp, California. Transferred to the Minidoka concentration camp, Idaho, along with many other Japanese Americans from Bainbridge Island. After leaving camp, moved to Seattle, Washington, eventually establish a very successful nursery business."
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            "id": "848",
            "model": "narrator",
            "index": "13 1288/{'value': 1306, 'relation': 'eq'}",
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            "display_name": "Clyde Tichenor",
            "bio": "White male. Born August 28, 1925, in Chicago, Illinois. Lost father at an early age and moved to Los Angeles, California. While in Los Angeles, began to study judo. Was part of a group in 1943 that visited Manzanar and competed in a judo tournament. Served in the navy during World War II and eventually returned to Los Angeles, continued to practice judo."
        },
        {
            "id": "616",
            "model": "narrator",
            "index": "14 1289/{'value': 1306, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
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                "interviews": "http://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/narrator/616/interviews/"
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            "display_name": "Kiyo Maruyama",
            "bio": "Nisei male. Born August 28, 1920, in Los Angeles, California. Grew up in the Glendale area, where father ran a gardening business. Was in college at UC Berkeley when Japan bombed Pearl Harbor. During World War II, removed to the Manzanar concentration camp, California. Left camp to work in Chicago. Drafted into the army and served with the Military Intelligence Service in Japan. Returned to California and started an accounting firm. Became involved in many community organizations in Los Angeles."
        },
        {
            "id": "652",
            "model": "narrator",
            "index": "15 1290/{'value': 1306, 'relation': 'eq'}",
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            "display_name": "Grace Hata",
            "bio": "Nisei female. Born December 5, 1930, in Gardena, California. Grew up in Gardena where parents ran a restaurant. After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, father was arrested and taken away by the FBI. During mass removal, family was sent to the Manzanar concentration camp, California, and reunited with father. Following the Leave Clearance questionnaire in 1943, family transferred to the Tule Lake concentration camp, California, and then repatriated to Japan. Grace lived and worked in Japan for a year and a half before returning to California, finishing school, and becoming a nurse."
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            "id": "572",
            "model": "narrator",
            "index": "16 1291/{'value': 1306, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
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            "display_name": "Richard E. Yamashiro",
            "bio": "Nisei male. Born February 13, 1929, in Seattle, Washington. Grew up in Hollywood, California, and was living there when Japan bombed Pearl Harbor in 1941. Removed to the Manzanar concentration camp, California. Parents signed \"no-no\" on the so-called \"loyalty questionnaire\" and the family was transferred to the Tule Lake concentration camp, California, then designated as a segregation center. From Tule Lake, expatriated to Japan and moved there with family. Eventually came back to the U.S., joined the Military Intelligence Service, and returned to Japan for military service."
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            "id": "ddr-csujad-2-84",
            "model": "entity",
            "index": "17 1292/{'value': 1306, 'relation': 'eq'}",
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            "title": "Community Analysis Notes, no. 1, January 15, 1944",
            "description": "Titled as: From a Nisei who said \"No.\" Account by an unnamed Community Analyst at Manzanar of the \"life experience and viewpoints\" influencing a young man's \"No\" response to the Army registration form's Question 28. The account stems from the analyst's notes, reproduced verbatim, from an exchange between the young man and the Hearing Board authorized to decide questions concerning segregation. The account also includes a summary from an extensive follow-up interview, in which the man discusses his family's history of working as farmers in the United States; their experience of racism; their initial desire to serve in the military and the effect of the forced removal (\"evacuation\") on their thinking; the effects of propaganda from media including the Los Angeles Examiner and the Los Angeles Times; the different expectations of Issei and Nisei regarding their prospects for treatment during the War; and the reasons for his \"No\" response to Question 28. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: <a href=\"http://cdm16855.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p16855coll4/id/6126\" target=\"_blank\">sjs_sch_0084</a>",
            "extent": "8 pages, typescript",
            "links_children": "ddr-csujad-2-84",
            "creators": [
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                    "namepart": "United States. War Relocation Authority. Community Analysis Section"
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            "topics": [
                {
                    "term": "Identity and values -- Nisei",
                    "id": "44"
                },
                {
                    "term": "World War II -- Administration -- War Relocation Authority (WRA)",
                    "id": "403"
                },
                {
                    "term": "World War II -- Administration -- Registration and the \"loyalty questionnaire\"",
                    "id": "85"
                },
                {
                    "term": "Race and racism",
                    "id": "36"
                },
                {
                    "term": "Identity and values -- Issei",
                    "id": "43"
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                {
                    "term": "Industry and employment -- Agriculture",
                    "id": "6"
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                {
                    "term": "Race and racism -- Discrimination",
                    "id": "37"
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                {
                    "term": "Religion and churches -- Buddhism",
                    "id": "395"
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                {
                    "term": "Religion and churches -- Christianity",
                    "id": "396"
                },
                {
                    "term": "World War II -- \"Enemy alien\" classification",
                    "id": "84"
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                {
                    "term": "World War II -- Economic losses",
                    "id": "59"
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                {
                    "term": "World War II -- Concentration camps -- Impact of incarceration",
                    "id": "78"
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                {
                    "term": "World War II -- Mass removal (\"evacuation\")",
                    "id": "57"
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                {
                    "term": "World War II -- Military service",
                    "id": "88"
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                {
                    "term": "World War II -- Propaganda -- Media propaganda",
                    "id": "427"
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                {
                    "term": "Geographic communities -- California",
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                    "term": "World War II -- Administration -- Community Analysis Section",
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            "language": [
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            "contributor": "San Jose State University Department of Special Collections and Archives",
            "rights": "pdm",
            "genre": "periodical",
            "location": "Newell, California",
            "facility": [
                {
                    "term": "Tule Lake",
                    "id": "10"
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            "status": "completed"
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            "display_name": "Rose Matsui Ochi",
            "bio": "Nisei female. Born December 15, 1938, in Los Angeles, California. As a child, removed to the Santa Anita Assembly Center, California, and the Rohwer concentration camp, Arkansas. Following World War II, became a teacher and then went to law school. In 1974, worked for Los Angeles Mayor Bradley as a legislative research coordinator and eventually executive assistant to the mayor, heading up the Criminal Justice office. Served as the pro-bono lawyer for the Manzanar Committee and was instrumental in the site's establishment and development."
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            "display_name": "Fumiko Hayashida",
            "bio": "Nisei female. Born January 21, 1911, in Winslow, Washington. Grew up in Japan and the Fletcher's Bay area of Bainbridge Island, Washington. Member of the first group of Japanese Americans to be forcibly removed from their homes and incarcerated. Incarcerated at Manzanar concentration camp, California, and Minidoka concentration camp, Idaho, while pregnant and caring for two small children. Subject of famous photo of a mother carrying her sleeping child wearing evacuation tags."
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            "id": "782",
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                "interviews": "http://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/narrator/782/interviews/"
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            "display_name": "Yoshimitsu Suyematsu",
            "bio": "Nisei male. Born May 30, 1927, on Bainbridge Island, Washington. Grew up on Bainbridge, where parents ran a strawberry farm. During World War II, removed to the Manzanar concentration camp, California, then transferred to the Minidoka concentration camp, Idaho. After leaving camp, returned to Bainbridge for a time and then volunteered for the military, serving in Japan during the U.S. occupation. After returning to the United States, established a farm in Ontario, Oregon."
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            "display_name": "Alan Nishio",
            "bio": "Sansei male. Born August 9, 1945, at the Manzanar concentration camp, California, where his parents were incarcerated during World War II. Grew up in the Venice area of California, and became increasingly politically active while attending the University of California, Berkeley, during the Free Speech Movement during the late 1960s. Earned a master's degree at the University of Southern California, then helped to found the UCLA Asian American Studies Center. Became an administrator at California State University, Long Beach, eventually advancing to the position of Associate Vice President, Student Services. Became a community activist in Los Angeles and helped to form several important community organizations such as the Little Tokyo People's Rights Organization and the Little Tokyo Service Center."
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            "title": "American Concentration Camps VOLUME 3 February 20, 1942- March 31, 1942",
            "description": "Volume 3 divides into 4 sections. Description about this volume reads directly from the book as follows: Section 1 contains archival documents from February 20, 1942 to March 19, 1942 regarding the basic decision of how to remove more than 100,000 human beings which was delegated to General De Witt and his staff. Section 2 contains the Congressional Record from March 19, 1942 which contain the entire congressional debate over the status which made it a federal crime for a civilian in an area that was not under martial law to fail to obey the instructions of a commanding general and his deputies. Section 3 contains the Preliminary Report and Recommendations report dated March 19, 1942 that endorsed what the military wanted to do and was doing and had it been otherwise, congressional approval might not have been so routine. Section 4 contains archival documents, dated March 20, 1942 to March 31, 1942, that shows the policy of forced removal put into effect; in this period the first of General De Witt's Civilian Exclusion Orders (printed in volume 1) was issued affecting the Bainbridge Islanders of Puget Sound, and the first Relocation Center was opened at Manzanar, California.",
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                    "term": "Geographic communities -- Washington -- Bainbridge Island",
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                    "term": "World War II -- Mass removal (\"evacuation\")",
                    "id": "57"
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                {
                    "term": "World War II -- Mass removal (\"evacuation\") -- \"Evacuation Day\"",
                    "id": "190"
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                    "term": "World War II -- Mass removal (\"evacuation\") -- Aftermath",
                    "id": "191"
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                {
                    "term": "World War II -- Mass removal (\"evacuation\") -- Exclusion orders",
                    "id": "188"
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                {
                    "term": "World War II -- Mass removal (\"evacuation\") -- Preparation",
                    "id": "189"
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                    "term": "World War II -- Pearl Harbor and aftermath",
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            "persons": [
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                    "id": "144"
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            "id": "18",
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            "display_name": "Aiko Herzig-Yoshinaga",
            "bio": "Nisei female. Born August 5, 1924, in Sacramento, California. Grew up in Sacramento and Los Angeles. During World War II, removed to the Manzanar concentration camp, California, and transferred to the Jerome concentration camp, Arkansas. Washington representative and researcher for National Council for Japanese American Redress (NCJAR) and primary archival researcher for the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians (CWRIC), and the three coram nobis cases. Consultant to the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History exhibition. \"A More Perfect Union: Japanese Americans and the United States Constitution\"; and consultant for the Justice Department's Office of Redress Administration."
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            "id": "484",
            "model": "narrator",
            "index": "24 1299/{'value': 1306, 'relation': 'eq'}",
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                "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/narrators/mjim.jpg",
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                "interviews": "http://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/narrator/484/interviews/"
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            "display_name": "Jim Matsuoka",
            "bio": "Nisei male. Born July 27, 1935, in Los Angeles, Califonia. Grew up in Los Angeles' Little Tokyo neighborhood prior to World War II. After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, removed with family to the Manzanar concentration camp, California. After leaving camp, returned to Los Angeles and attended school. Became involved in gang activity in L.A. in the 1950s. Served in the military from 1958 to 1960. Active in community social service organizations in Little Tokyo, and was one of the integral players in the redress movement."
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