Nisei male. Born May 9, 1922, in Portland, Oregon. Moved to Seattle with father after parents divorced. Grew up in Seattle's Nihonmachi where father ran a secondhand store. Disinterested in college after seeing a lack of employment opportunities for graduating Japanese Americans. Went to work for Great Northern Railway, laying and maintaining tracks on the West Coast. At war's onset, Great Northern brought its Japanese workers together in a segregated gang outside the restricted zone, so he continued to work for the railroad, thus avoiding incarceration in a War Relocation Authority camp. While away, father was picked up by the FBI, and then sent to Kooskia internment camp, Idaho, where he was held throughout the war. Drafted into military service in 1945. Returned to Great Northern and was promoted through the ranks in the accounting department despite running into workplace discrimination.