Kibei male. Born 1922 in Hawaii. Moved with family to Hiroshima at age three, then returned to the Fresno area of the U.S. for high school. During World War II, was sent to the Fresno Assembly Center, California, and the Jerome concentration camp, Arkansas. While at Jerome, refused to answer the so-called "loyalty questions" and was transferred to Tule Lake concentration camp when it became a segregation center. At the end of 1943, was involved in a confrontation with camp administrators and was severely beaten by War Relocation Officials and thrown in Tule Lake's stockade. While in the stockade, participated in a hunger strike, and later helped to organize young people's groups with the goal of going to Japan. Eventually renounced U.S. citizenship and was sent to the Santa Fe Department of Justice camp before expatriation to Japan. Remained in Japan after the war, working for the U.S. occupation army and then in private business.