Nisei male. Born 1924 in Tacoma, Washington. Grew up in Tacoma, where father worked for a produce business. After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, removed to the Pinedale Assembly Center, California, and the Tule Lake concentration camp, California. Left camp temporarily to work harvesting sugar beets for a sugar company. Drafted into the army in 1945. After the war, established a successful career studying the influenza virus.