Nisei male. Born February 23, 1924, in Brawley, California. Grew up in El Centro, California, where parents ran a farm. During World War II, was removed to the Poston concentration camp, Arizona. Family signed "no-no" on the so-called "loyalty questionnaire" and transferred to the Crystal City internment camp, Texas, then to Japan. Lived and worked in Japan until 1950 before returning to the United States.