Nisei male. Born October 3, 1923, in Los Angeles, California. Grew up in Los Angeles, where parents owned and operated a produce store. After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, removed to the Pomona Assembly Center, California, and the Heart Mountain concentration camp, Wyoming. While in Heart Mountain, decided to resist the draft, and attended meetings of the Fair Play Committee. Tried for draft resistance, and served two years at the McNeil Island federal penitentiary. After the war, was pardoned by President Truman along with all of the other Japanese American wartime draft resisters.