Sansei male. Born December 13, 1920, in Fresno, California. Father was born in Hawaii, mother was born in Japan. Grew up in Fresno, where parents ran a successful bicycle shop and general store. During World War II, removed to the Fresno Assembly Center, California, and the Jerome concentration camp, Arkansas. Signed "no-no" on the so-called "loyalty questions" and was segregated to the Tule Lake concentration camp, California. Renounced U.S. citizenship, and was transferred to the Department of Justice camp at Santa Fe, New Mexico. Decided to remain in the U.S., and had citizenship restored. After the war, returned to Fresno.