Kibei male, born October 12, 1923, in Seattle, Washington. Raised primarily in San Francisco, California, spending four years in Hiratsuka, Japan. Was incarcerated with his family at Topaz concentration camp, Utah. Refused to sign the so-called "loyalty questionnaire," and as a consequence was moved to Tule Lake Segregation Center, California. In Tule, he renounced his U.S. citizenship in protest of the incarceration his treatment in camp, and the so-called "loyalty questionnaire." Shortly thereafter he regretted his actions and attempted to rescind his decision. (It would be ten years before he would regain his citizenship.) After being released from Tule Lake in March 1946 he accepted a scholarship to College of the Ozarks, Arkansas, transferred to the University of California, Berkeley, and then served overseas in the U.S. Air Force Intelligence during the Korean War until his renunciation was discovered. After being dismissed from the air force he stayed in Japan, earning a master's and doctorate degree from Tokyo University. Published an autobiographical work in Japan entitled "Nikkei hangyakuji," which was translated into English as "Beyond Loyalty: The Story of a Kibei."