Nisei female. Born May 19, 1921, in San Pedro, California. During World War II, incarcerated in the Santa Anita Assembly Center, California, and the Jerome concentration camp, Arkansas. After leaving camp, lived and worked in Mississippi before marrying and moving to the Harlem neighborhood of New York City. Became involved in a number of political causes during the Civil Rights Movement. Eventually met Malcolm X, and became a follower of his internationalist concept of human rights and nationalism based on self-determination and self-reliance.