Nisei male. Born June 28, 1925, in Turlock, California. Grew up in the Cortez, California, area. During World War II, was removed to the Merced Assembly Center, California, and Granada (Amache) concentration camp, Colorado. When drafted by the military, refused to report for the preinduction physical, and was tried and jailed for refusing the draft. Served time in the Santa Catalina prison camp, and was pardoned along with other resisters of conscience by President Truman in 1947.