Community responses to resistance

In December 1947, President Truman pardoned all wartime draft resisters, including Nisei from the concentration camps. The pardon removed the criminal convictions from the resisters' records. However, other Japanese Americans, including some U.S. Army veterans and leaders of the Japanese American Citizens League (JACL), continued to label resisters as disloyal, unpatriotic, cowardly "draft dodgers." Some Japanese Americans blamed the resisters for increasing the public's negative attitudes toward people of Japanese ancestry. These consequences affected many resisters for the rest of their lives. Despite an official JACL apology to the resisters in 2000, many Japanese American veterans' groups and others continue to harbor negative feelings toward the resisters. Legacies of the World War II ostracism of resisters contribute to ongoing division within Japanese American communities.

Community responses to resistance (51)

51 items
Jim Akutsu Segment 24 (ddr-densho-1000-2-24)
vh Jim Akutsu Segment 24 (ddr-densho-1000-2-24)
Postwar community ostracism of the draft resisters

Interview was conducted over two days because of delays caused by technical difficulties.

Clifford Uyeda Interview Segment 7 (ddr-densho-122-19-7)
vh Clifford Uyeda Interview Segment 7 (ddr-densho-122-19-7)
Thoughts on the treatment of the draft resisters by the JACL, Japanese American community, and Nisei veterans

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are ...

Bill Hosokawa Interview Segment 5 (ddr-densho-122-26-5)
vh Bill Hosokawa Interview Segment 5 (ddr-densho-122-26-5)
Belief that the actions of the World War II draft resisters "endangered a lot of other people"
Andy Noguchi Interview Segment 2 (ddr-densho-122-27-2)
vh Andy Noguchi Interview Segment 2 (ddr-densho-122-27-2)
Different reactions to the resolution

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing on issues surrounding the resistance ...

Randy Senzaki Interview Segment 2 (ddr-densho-122-18-2)
vh Randy Senzaki Interview Segment 2 (ddr-densho-122-18-2)
Frustration with the JACL's "denial" regarding apologizing to the World War II resisters of conscience

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically ...

Randy Senzaki Interview Segment 8 (ddr-densho-122-18-8)
vh Randy Senzaki Interview Segment 8 (ddr-densho-122-18-8)
Description of resisters' panel at the Salt Lake City National JACL convention

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead ...

Bill Hosokawa Interview Segment 22 (ddr-densho-1000-129-22)
vh Bill Hosokawa Interview Segment 22 (ddr-densho-1000-129-22)
Feelings about the resisters: have to understand the situation at the time
Francis Mas Fukuhara Segment 24 (ddr-densho-1000-9-24)
vh Francis Mas Fukuhara Segment 24 (ddr-densho-1000-9-24)
Thoughts on the Japanese American Citizens League's handling of the draft resisters issue
Harry K. Yoshikawa Interview Segment 30 (ddr-densho-1000-278-30)
vh Harry K. Yoshikawa Interview Segment 30 (ddr-densho-1000-278-30)
Thoughts on the Japanese American Citizens League's actions toward draft resisters: "I think that was kind of appalling"

Due to technical difficulties during the taping of this interview, the interviewer's voice is considerably louder than the narrator's. This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior ...

Harry K. Yoshikawa Interview Segment 29 (ddr-densho-1000-278-29)
vh Harry K. Yoshikawa Interview Segment 29 (ddr-densho-1000-278-29)
Talking more openly about wartime draft resistance

Due to technical difficulties during the taping of this interview, the interviewer's voice is considerably louder than the narrator's. This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in ...

Yosh Kuromiya Interview Segment 6 (ddr-densho-122-8-6)
vh Yosh Kuromiya Interview Segment 6 (ddr-densho-122-8-6)
Feeling "betrayed" by the Japanese American Citizens League

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing on issues ...

Clifford Uyeda Interview Segment 8 (ddr-densho-122-19-8)
vh Clifford Uyeda Interview Segment 8 (ddr-densho-122-19-8)
Trying to reconcile the draft resisters with the JACL

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing on ...

Jim Akutsu Interview Segment 8 (ddr-densho-122-12-8)
vh Jim Akutsu Interview Segment 8 (ddr-densho-122-12-8)
Receiving the silent treatment from the Japanese American community postwar

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing ...

Paul Tsuneishi Interview Segment 4 (ddr-densho-122-24-4)
vh Paul Tsuneishi Interview Segment 4 (ddr-densho-122-24-4)
The postwar ostracization of the resisters

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing on issues surrounding the ...

Gene Akutsu Interview Segment 6 (ddr-densho-1016-4-6)
vh Gene Akutsu Interview Segment 6 (ddr-densho-1016-4-6)
Rebuilding life after serving time in jail for resisting the draft

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the ...

Mits Koshiyama Interview Segment 10 (ddr-densho-1002-6-10)
vh Mits Koshiyama Interview Segment 10 (ddr-densho-1002-6-10)
The stigma attached to being a resister: "we were never against the veterans"
Masao Watanabe Segment 50 (ddr-densho-1000-103-50)
vh Masao Watanabe Segment 50 (ddr-densho-1000-103-50)
A veteran's thoughts on "no-no" boys

At the time this interview was taped, Mr. Watanabe was recovering from a recent series of cancer treatments.

Frank Yamasaki Interview I Segment 33 (ddr-densho-1000-107-33)
vh Frank Yamasaki Interview I Segment 33 (ddr-densho-1000-107-33)
Intimidation by other Japanese Americans in response to wartime draft resistance
Dave Kawamoto Interview Segment 8 (ddr-densho-122-9-8)
vh Dave Kawamoto Interview Segment 8 (ddr-densho-122-9-8)
Response to JACL's name-calling: "it made me feel kind of betrayed"

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead ...

Randy Senzaki Interview Segment 3 (ddr-densho-122-18-3)
vh Randy Senzaki Interview Segment 3 (ddr-densho-122-18-3)
As national director of the JACL, attempting to bridge the gap with resisters, and turn the JACL into a civil rights organization

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the ...

Randy Senzaki Interview Segment 7 (ddr-densho-122-18-7)
vh Randy Senzaki Interview Segment 7 (ddr-densho-122-18-7)
Thoughts on the courage of the resisters; the resisters' mistreatment postwar by the Japanese American community

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically ...

James Omura Interview I Segment 21 (ddr-densho-122-4-21)
vh James Omura Interview I Segment 21 (ddr-densho-122-4-21)
Thoughts on the JACL's passage of a resolution to acknowledge the loyalty of the wartime draft resisters

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection ...

Roger Daniels Interview Segment 2 (ddr-densho-122-25-2)
vh Roger Daniels Interview Segment 2 (ddr-densho-122-25-2)
Background of the resistance movement and the response of the JACL and the ACLU to their stand

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are ...

API