Community responses to resistance

In December 1947, President Truman pardoned all wartime draft resisters, including Nisei from the concentration camps. The pardon removed the criminal convictions from the resisters' records. However, other Japanese Americans, including some U.S. Army veterans and leaders of the Japanese American Citizens League (JACL), continued to label resisters as disloyal, unpatriotic, cowardly "draft dodgers." Some Japanese Americans blamed the resisters for increasing the public's negative attitudes toward people of Japanese ancestry. These consequences affected many resisters for the rest of their lives. Despite an official JACL apology to the resisters in 2000, many Japanese American veterans' groups and others continue to harbor negative feelings toward the resisters. Legacies of the World War II ostracism of resisters contribute to ongoing division within Japanese American communities.

Community responses to resistance (53)

53 items
Randy Senzaki Interview Segment 2 (ddr-densho-122-18-2)
vh Randy Senzaki Interview Segment 2 (ddr-densho-122-18-2)
Frustration with the JACL's "denial" regarding apologizing to the World War II resisters of conscience

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically ...

Randy Senzaki Interview Segment 8 (ddr-densho-122-18-8)
vh Randy Senzaki Interview Segment 8 (ddr-densho-122-18-8)
Description of resisters' panel at the Salt Lake City National JACL convention

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead ...

Andy Noguchi Interview Segment 2 (ddr-densho-122-27-2)
vh Andy Noguchi Interview Segment 2 (ddr-densho-122-27-2)
Different reactions to the resolution

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing on issues surrounding the resistance ...

Bill Hosokawa Interview Segment 5 (ddr-densho-122-26-5)
vh Bill Hosokawa Interview Segment 5 (ddr-densho-122-26-5)
Belief that the actions of the World War II draft resisters "endangered a lot of other people"
Clifford Uyeda Interview Segment 7 (ddr-densho-122-19-7)
vh Clifford Uyeda Interview Segment 7 (ddr-densho-122-19-7)
Thoughts on the treatment of the draft resisters by the JACL, Japanese American community, and Nisei veterans

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are ...

Jim Akutsu Segment 24 (ddr-densho-1000-2-24)
vh Jim Akutsu Segment 24 (ddr-densho-1000-2-24)
Postwar community ostracism of the draft resisters

Interview was conducted over two days because of delays caused by technical difficulties.

Clifford Uyeda Interview Segment 18 (ddr-densho-122-19-18)
vh Clifford Uyeda Interview Segment 18 (ddr-densho-122-19-18)
The effects of both the resistance movement and the World War II actions of the JACL on Japanese American identity today

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews ...

Fred Hirasuna Interview Segment 3 (ddr-densho-122-29-3)
vh Fred Hirasuna Interview Segment 3 (ddr-densho-122-29-3)
Feelings on the views of the Heart Mountain resisters

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing on ...

Fred Hirasuna Interview Segment 8 (ddr-densho-122-29-8)
vh Fred Hirasuna Interview Segment 8 (ddr-densho-122-29-8)
Opinion that the resisters of conscience were "harming the cause of the entire group"

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life ...

James Omura Interview I Segment 19 (ddr-densho-122-4-19)
vh James Omura Interview I Segment 19 (ddr-densho-122-4-19)
Accusations of disloyalty by the Japanese American Citizens League

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing on ...

Clifford Uyeda Interview Segment 15 (ddr-densho-122-19-15)
vh Clifford Uyeda Interview Segment 15 (ddr-densho-122-19-15)
Reading and discussion of the 1990 Golden Gate resolution

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing on ...

Gene Akutsu Interview Segment 5 (ddr-densho-1016-4-5)
vh Gene Akutsu Interview Segment 5 (ddr-densho-1016-4-5)
Impact of draft resistance

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the Interior.

Mits Koshiyama Interview Segment 19 (ddr-densho-1000-130-19)
vh Mits Koshiyama Interview Segment 19 (ddr-densho-1000-130-19)
Difficulties faced by resisters after the war; ways of showing patriotism and loyalty other than serving in the military
Francis Mas Fukuhara Segment 26 (ddr-densho-1000-9-26)
vh Francis Mas Fukuhara Segment 26 (ddr-densho-1000-9-26)
A veteran's perspective on the World War II resisters of conscience
Gene Akutsu Segment 24 (ddr-densho-1000-1-24)
vh Gene Akutsu Segment 24 (ddr-densho-1000-1-24)
Impact of draft resistance on family: harsh response from Japanese American community contributes to Mother's suicide
Gene Akutsu Interview Segment 6 (ddr-densho-1016-4-6)
vh Gene Akutsu Interview Segment 6 (ddr-densho-1016-4-6)
Rebuilding life after serving time in jail for resisting the draft

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the ...

Clifford Uyeda Interview Segment 8 (ddr-densho-122-19-8)
vh Clifford Uyeda Interview Segment 8 (ddr-densho-122-19-8)
Trying to reconcile the draft resisters with the JACL

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing on ...

Jim Akutsu Interview Segment 8 (ddr-densho-122-12-8)
vh Jim Akutsu Interview Segment 8 (ddr-densho-122-12-8)
Receiving the silent treatment from the Japanese American community postwar

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing ...

Paul Tsuneishi Interview Segment 4 (ddr-densho-122-24-4)
vh Paul Tsuneishi Interview Segment 4 (ddr-densho-122-24-4)
The postwar ostracization of the resisters

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing on issues surrounding the ...

Yosh Kuromiya Interview Segment 6 (ddr-densho-122-8-6)
vh Yosh Kuromiya Interview Segment 6 (ddr-densho-122-8-6)
Feeling "betrayed" by the Japanese American Citizens League

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing on issues ...

Jimmie Omura Interview Segment 25 (ddr-densho-1002-11-25)
vh Jimmie Omura Interview Segment 25 (ddr-densho-1002-11-25)
Experiencing ostracism from the Japanese American community postwar; reflections on life

This interview was conducted by sisters Emiko and Chizuko Omori for their 1999 documentary, Rabbit in the Moon, about the Japanese American resisters of conscience in the World War II incarceration camps. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories ...

Bill Hosokawa Interview Segment 22 (ddr-densho-1000-129-22)
vh Bill Hosokawa Interview Segment 22 (ddr-densho-1000-129-22)
Feelings about the resisters: have to understand the situation at the time
Francis Mas Fukuhara Segment 24 (ddr-densho-1000-9-24)
vh Francis Mas Fukuhara Segment 24 (ddr-densho-1000-9-24)
Thoughts on the Japanese American Citizens League's handling of the draft resisters issue
Harry K. Yoshikawa Interview Segment 30 (ddr-densho-1000-278-30)
vh Harry K. Yoshikawa Interview Segment 30 (ddr-densho-1000-278-30)
Thoughts on the Japanese American Citizens League's actions toward draft resisters: "I think that was kind of appalling"

Due to technical difficulties during the taping of this interview, the interviewer's voice is considerably louder than the narrator's. This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior ...

Harry K. Yoshikawa Interview Segment 29 (ddr-densho-1000-278-29)
vh Harry K. Yoshikawa Interview Segment 29 (ddr-densho-1000-278-29)
Talking more openly about wartime draft resistance

Due to technical difficulties during the taping of this interview, the interviewer's voice is considerably louder than the narrator's. This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in ...

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