Education

Schools were quickly organized in the concentration camps, but they suffered from crude facilities and lack of teaching materials. Instruction was given for nursery through high school, and adult education was offered. Trained teachers were in short supply, however, and uncertified Japanese Americans with college degrees often filled in. The War Relocation Authority (WRA) deliberately emphasized Americanization in the education program. Some found it painfully ironic to watch incarcerated youth recite the Pledge of Allegiance.

Education (782)

782 items
doc "Relocation Center" composition (ddr-densho-334-1)
May Okano Sakuma's composition reflecting on her time at Minidoka concentration camp.
Letter to Molly Wilson from Mary Murakami (October 6, 1942) (ddr-janm-1-29)
doc Letter to Molly Wilson from Mary Murakami (October 6, 1942) (ddr-janm-1-29)
Handwritten letter to Molly Wilson from Mary Murakami (October 6, 1942).
Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Miyeko Imamura (December 16, 1942) (ddr-janm-1-64)
doc Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Miyeko Imamura (December 16, 1942) (ddr-janm-1-64)
Handwritten letter to Molly Wilson from Miyeko Imamura (December 16, 1942). Envelope is postmarked February 20, 1943 from the Heart Mountain Incarceration Camp in Cody, Wyoming.
Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Violet Saito (October 10, 1942) (ddr-janm-1-71)
doc Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Violet Saito (October 10, 1942) (ddr-janm-1-71)
Handwritten letter to Mollie Wilson from Violet Saito (October 10, 1942). Envelope is postmarked October 12, 1942 from the Granada (Amache) Incarceration Camp in Amache, Colorado.
Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Violet Saito (March 15, 1943) (ddr-janm-1-69)
doc Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Violet Saito (March 15, 1943) (ddr-janm-1-69)
Handwritten letter to Mollie Wilson from Violet Saito (March 15, 1943). Envelope is postmarked March 22, 1943 from the Granada (Amache) Incarceration Camp in Amache, Colorado.
Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Mary Murakami (February 26, 1943) (ddr-janm-1-33)
doc Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Mary Murakami (February 26, 1943) (ddr-janm-1-33)
Handwritten letter to Molly Wilson from Mary Murakami (February 26, 1943). Envelope is postmarked February 27, 1943 from the Poston (Colorado River) Incarceration Camp in Parker, Arizona.
Letter (with envelope) to Mollie Wilson from Lillian (Nobie) Igasaki (April 14, 1943) (ddr-janm-1-47)
doc Letter (with envelope) to Mollie Wilson from Lillian (Nobie) Igasaki (April 14, 1943) (ddr-janm-1-47)
Handwritten letter to Molly Wilson from Lillian (Nobie) Igasaki (April 14, 1943). Envelope is postmarked April 20, 1943 from the Manzanar Incarceration Camp in Manzanar, California.
Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from June Yoshigai (March 21, 1943) (ddr-janm-1-82)
doc Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from June Yoshigai (March 21, 1943) (ddr-janm-1-82)
Handwritten letter to Molly Wilson from June Yoshigai (March 21, 1943). Envelope is postmarked March 22, 1943 from the Gila River Incarceration Camp in Rivers, Arizona.
Students studying in shade (ddr-densho-151-362)
img Students studying in shade (ddr-densho-151-362)
Original caption: Manzanar Relocation Center, Manzanar, California. Young sixth-grade students studying their lessons in the shade of the barracks at this first voluntary elementary school.
Students in temporary classroom (ddr-densho-151-366)
img Students in temporary classroom (ddr-densho-151-366)
Original caption: Manzanar Relocation Center, Manzanar, California. An elementary school with voluntary attendance has been established with volunteer evacuee teachers, most of whom are college graduates. No school equipment is as yet obtainable and available tables and benches are used. However, classes are often held in the shade of the barrack building at this War Relocation ...
Students studying in shade (ddr-densho-151-364)
img Students studying in shade (ddr-densho-151-364)
Original caption: Manzanar Relocation Center, Manzanar, California. An elementary school has been established with evacuee volunteer teachers, most of whom are college graduates. Attendance at this time is voluntary. No school equipment is as yet available and classes are also held outside the barrack building in the shade.
End of school celebration (ddr-densho-152-30)
img End of school celebration (ddr-densho-152-30)
Members of the third grade class perform in the last day of school celebration.
Elementary school boys (ddr-densho-152-5)
img Elementary school boys (ddr-densho-152-5)
Boys from Evelyn Dell's fourth grade class play outside. (Written on back): "Boys from my room. Norman is the nicest boy - very intelligent and so well mannered."
Fourth grade boys (ddr-densho-152-17)
img Fourth grade boys (ddr-densho-152-17)
Fourth grade boys from Heart Mountain Elementary School play outside.
Painting of a woodworking class (ddr-manz-2-50)
img Painting of a woodworking class (ddr-manz-2-50)
Caption: "The boys in the woodcarving class of Mr. Bouche were being praised for their good work that day. The teacher was kept very busy showing his pupils how to hold the chisel."
Teacher standing outside classroom barracks (ddr-manz-7-5)
img Teacher standing outside classroom barracks (ddr-manz-7-5)
Caption on reverse: "Martha Shoaf, Manzanar, outside classroom."
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